Category: Tesla

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“All preliminary information is necessarily incomplete, but I always make sure that it is based on demonstrated fact and accurate as far as it goes. My illustrious namesake, Copernicus, used to go twenty times over his scientific statements before giving them out;

nevertheless, compared with the attention I bestow upon my own, he might have been considered a careless man.”

–Nikola Tesla

(“Tesla on Power Development and Future Marvels.” New York World Telegram. July 24, 1934.)

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drnikolatesla:

“We are just waves in time and space, changing continuously, and the illusion of individuality is produced through the concatenation of the rapidly succeeding phases of existence. What we define as likeness is merely the result of the symmetrical arrangement of molecules which compose our body.”

Nikola Tesla.

“Tesla Seeks to Send Power to Planets.” New York Times, July 11, 1931.

drnikolatesla: “If there is energy within the…

drnikolatesla:

“If there is energy within the substance it can only come from without. This truth was so manifest to me that I expressed it in the following axiom: ‘There is no energy in matter except that absorbed from the medium…’ If all energy is supplied to matter from without then this all important function must be performed by the medium.”

“When radio-active rays were discovered their investigators believed them to be due to liberation of atomic energy in the form of waves. This being impossible in the light of the preceding I concluded that they were produced by some external disturbance and composed of electrified particles. My theory was not seriously taken although it appeared simple and plausible. Suppose that bullets are fired against a wall. Where a missile strikes the material is crushed and spatters in all directions radial from the place of impact. In this example it is perfectly clear that the energy of the flying pieces can only be derived from that of the bullets. But in manifestation of radio-activity no such proof could be advanced and it was, therefore, of the first importance to demonstrate experimentally the existence of this miraculous disturbance in the medium. I was rewarded in these efforts with quick success largely because of the efficient method I adopted which consisted in deriving from a great mass of air, ionized by the disturbance, a current, storing its energy in a condenser and discharging the same through an indicating device. This plan did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope first employed and was described by me in articles and patents from 1900 to 1905. It was logical to expect, judging from the behavior of known radiations, that the chief source of the new rays would be the sun, but this supposition was contradicted by observations and theoretical considerations which disclosed some surprising facts in this connection.

“Light and heat rays are absorbed in their passage through a medium in a certain proportion to its density. The ether, although the most tenuous of all substances, is no exception to this rule.  Its density has been first estimated by Lord Kelvin and conformably to his finding a column of one square centimeter cross section and of a length such that light, traveling at a rate of three hundred thousands kilometers per second, would require one year to traverse it, should weigh 4.8 grams. This is just about the weight of a prism of ordinary glass of the same cross section and two centimeters length which, therefore, may be assumed as the equivalent of the ether column in absorption. A column of the ether one thousand times longer would thus absorb as much light as twenty meters of glass.  However, there are suns at distances of many thousands of light years and it is evident that virtually no light from them can reach the earth. But if these suns emit rays immensely more penetrative than those of light they will be slightly dimmed and so the aggregate amount of radiations pouring upon the earth from all sides will be overwhelmingly greater than that supplied to it by our luminary. If light and heat rays would be as penetrative as the cosmic, so fierce would be the perpetual glare and so scorching the heat that life on this and other planets could not exist.

“Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.

“It has been suggested that the cosmic rays are electrons or that they are the result of creation of new matter in the interstellar deserts. These views are too fantastic to be even for a moment seriously considered. They are natural outcroppings of this age of deep but unrational thinking, of impossible theories, the latest of which might, perhaps, deal with the curvature of time. What this world of ours would be if time were curved…“

–Nikola Tesla

“The Eternal Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays.” October 13, 1932.

Ahead of our time!

drnikolatesla: “Edison and his associates bit…

drnikolatesla:

“Edison and his associates bitterly opposed the introduction of my system, raising a clamor against the “deadliness” of the alternating current, which proved very effective and led to the adoption of a commercial type of machine in electrocution of criminals, an apparatus monstrously unsuitable, for the poor wretches are not despatched in a merciful manner but literally roasted alive. To the observer their sufferings seem to be of short duration; it must be borne in mind, though, that an individual under such conditions, while wholly bereft of the consciousness of the lapse of time, retains a keen sense of pain, and a minute of agony is equivalent to that through all eternity.

“Had the Edison companies not finally adopted my invention they would have been wiped out of existence, and yet not the slightest acknowledgment of my labors has ever been made by any of them, a most remarkable instance of the proverbial unfairness and ingratitude of corporations. But the reason is not far to see. One of their prominent men told me that they are spending $10,000,000 every year to keep Edison’s name before the public, and he added that it is worth more to them. Of course, in all that unceasing and deafening shouting from the housetops any voice raised to apprise people of the real state of things is like the chirp of a little sparrow in the roar of Niagara. So it comes that very few have a clear idea of the situation.“

–Nikola Tesla

New York, Nov. 5

“Mr. Tesla Speaks Out.” New York World, Nov. 29, 1929.

Legends change the world they don’t need prize…

Legends change the world they don’t need prizes…

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Nikola Tesla and the True Explanation of the Photoelectric Effect

by J. J. J.

The photoelectric effect is a phenomenon which occurs when electromagnetic radiation, such as ultraviolet light, is exposed to certain metallic objects causing the metals to emit electrons from their surface.

In 1905, Albert Einstein gained world fame for supposedly being the first scientist to successfully describe this effect. His theory was that light had little packets (quanta) of energy, or photons, and when exposed to metallic objects at certain frequencies the electrons in these metallic objects would absorb this energy and be broken off from their source. Hence, photoelectrons.

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This theory led to the wave-particle duality of light since light seemed to act as both a wave and a particle. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theoretical and mathematical explanations of this effect. A theory that even today is still accepted as a fact. But According to experiments, research and data collected by Nikola Tesla, Einstein and many other scientists overlooked some key factors in their interpretations of the effect. 

The history of the photoelectric effect goes back to 1887, when Heinrich Hertz first observed electromagnetic waves in experiments, first predicted by James Clerk Maxwell over twenty years before. After this great discovery, Phillip Lenard and many other scientists, including Nikola Tesla, followed Hertz’ work with their own investigations into the matter.

In 1889, after freeing himself from work in Pittsburgh, Tesla returned to New York to begin work on high-frequency apparatuses, wireless transmission, and to develop theories on the relationship between light and electromagnetic radiation. It was right around this time in Tesla’s life when he was starting to gain fame. His alternating current system was finally getting recognition, and he was being asked to give lectures and demonstrations all over the world. On top of this, he was making new discoveries one after another. One very important discovery he made was the discovery of X-rays in 1884, which he called “shadowgraphs.” These mysterious radiations were still very new to him at this time so he wouldn’t realize their importance until a year later when Wilhelm Roentgen made public the same discovery that would win him the first ever Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. Unfortunately, Tesla’s laboratory would burn down eight months before Roentgen announced his discovery, and the inventor would lose all his laboratory data, notes, plans, photographs, tools, and inventions. So it must be noted that Nikola Tesla was indeed the first scientist to discover X-rays.

After recovering from the fire that destroyed his laboratory March of 1895, a tragedy that set him back a great deal in work and recognition, Nikola Tesla was finally able to resume his work in 1896. With experiments on radiant energy, such as radio waves and X-rays, not only would Nikola Tesla become the first scientist to discovery radioactivity and electrons, but he would be the first scientist to propose that light and other electromagnetic radiations had both particle-like and wave-like properties–predating Henri Becquerel’s radioactivity discovery by a few months, J.J. Thompson’s discovery of the electron by a couple years, and Einstein and other quantum physicist’s light theory by nearly a decade. But Tesla’s views on these effects were much different than other’s.

In experiments with his newly developed high-vacuum tubes and his high-frequency disruptive coil (Tesla Coil), Tesla shot cathode, and other rays at different metals noting the differences in reflection the streams made upon the metals. His experiments indicated six conclusions.

  1. His highly exhausted bulbs emit material streams which, impinging on the metallic surfaces experimented with, are reflected.
  2. These streams are formed of matter in some primary or elementary condition (what we now consider photons/or electrons).
  3. These material streams are probably the same agent which is the cause of the electro-motive tension between metals in close proximity, or actual contact, and they may possibly, to some extent, determine the energy of combination of the metals with oxygen.
  4. Every metal or conductor is more or less a source of such streams.
  5. These streams must be produced by some radiations which exist in the medium.
  6. These streams resembling the cathodic must be emitted by the sun (cosmic radiations) and probably also other sources of radiant energy, such as an arc light or Bunsen burner. 

He considered all conclusions incontrovertible, and with these results, Tesla believed it probable that there is a continuous supply of such radiations in the medium in some form which must come from the sun. Later experiments with the above conclusion would lead Tesla to his discovery of cosmic rays, which he also discovered come from not only our sun, but from every other star outside our solar system. This discovery would be fifteen years before Victor Hess who also won a Nobel Prize for this discovery, and who even today we still recognize as the discoverer of cosmic rays. 

Tesla also suggested that the primary particles composing the radiations are broken into smaller particles by impact against the metals, and are thereby enabled to pass into the air. His analogy was that of shooting a bullet at a wall. When the bullet strikes the wall it is crushed and spatters in all directions radial to where it hit the wall.

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So according to Tesla, the energy from the flying pieces can only come from that of the bullets, and the results will differ based on the density of the wall, and or the velocity of the bullets. For instance, X-rays are incomparably smaller than cathode rays and have a higher velocity, which is why we are unable to detect x-rays and assume them to be massless photons, while cathode rays are slower so we have been able to label them electrons. This is how Tesla’s radioactivity theory differs from today’s. He realized it was the cosmic rays, and other sources of radiation that cause the radioactivity on earth. We believe the metals, or the elements themselves are producing the radioactivity and emitting electrons, like Einstein’s photoelectric theory suggests, but Tesla’s theory obviously suggests otherwise.

Now to make the above experiments more precise and prove his cosmic radiation theory further, Tesla developed a better method. He used two conductors and connected them to terminals of a condenser which had a considerable electrostatic captivity. One conductor was a metal plate (’P’ in Fig. 1) which was exposed to the Sun’s, and other radiations, and the other being grounded (’p’ in fig. 1) since it is a supply of negative electricity. Now Tesla could derive from a great mass of air, ionized by the radiation disturbance, a current, and store its energy in the condenser (’C’ in Fig. 1).

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He could also discharge the current through an indicating device. This method did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope and gave Tesla much better results. He filed a patent based off these results titled, “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy,” published in 1901. This would obviously be a precursor to solar panels, but still more advanced than today’s panels because it ran off cosmic radiation and not just our sun’s light. 

So in order to get results like Tesla obtained, one would need to reproduce Tesla’s experiments and patents. You can search anywhere online and see demonstrations of the photoelectric effect, but all are using the weakest instruments to demonstrate the effect–like a basic ultraviolet light and an electroscope. The fact that today’s physical science relies on such demonstrations to prove its theories seems to show that science may not be as advanced as we tend to believe.   

Tesla’s work would obviously get ignored by main stream science, but it seems that today’s technology, which seemingly works off Albert Einstein’s theories, are in reality, working off Tesla’s.

“There can be no great harm in a student taking an erroneous view, but when great minds err, the world must dearly pay for their mistakes.”

–Nikola Tesla

“On Light And Other High Frequency Phenomena.” Lecture delivered before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, February 1893, and before the National Electric Light Association, St. Louis, March 1893.

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The inventor already has in his laboratory a “cosmic” machine,…

The inventor already has in his laboratory a “cosmic” machine, he disclosed. He said it was driven by “cosmic particles” which strike the earth at speeds 50 times greater than light. He contended that such machines, if perfected, will supply enough power for New York city from cosmic particles striking one square foot.

The relativists theory holds that light, traveling 182,000 miles a second, is the greatest velocity. Tesla said the theory is a “mass of errors,” and that science had overlooked cosmic particles by concentrating upon cosmic rays.

“Has Invented Machine That Can Start Real Earthquake.” Zanesville Signal, Zanesville, Ohio, July 12, 1935.

“Edison and his associates bitterly opposed the introduction of…

“Edison and his associates bitterly opposed the introduction of my system, raising a clamor against the “deadliness” of the alternating current, which proved very effective and led to the adoption of a commercial type of machine in electrocution of criminals, an apparatus monstrously unsuitable, for the poor wretches are not despatched in a merciful manner but literally roasted alive. To the observer their sufferings seem to be of short duration; it must be borne in mind, though, that an individual under such conditions, while wholly bereft of the consciousness of the lapse of time, retains a keen sense of pain, and a minute of agony is equivalent to that through all eternity.

“Had the Edison companies not finally adopted my invention they would have been wiped out of existence, and yet not the slightest acknowledgment of my labors has ever been made by any of them, a most remarkable instance of the proverbial unfairness and ingratitude of corporations. But the reason is not far to see. One of their prominent men told me that they are spending $10,000,000 every year to keep Edison’s name before the public, and he added that it is worth more to them. Of course, in all that unceasing and deafening shouting from the housetops any voice raised to apprise people of the real state of things is like the chirp of a little sparrow in the roar of Niagara. So it comes that very few have a clear idea of the situation.“

–Nikola Tesla

New York, Nov. 5

“Mr. Tesla Speaks Out.” New York World, Nov. 29, 1929.

drnikolatesla: The History of the Photoelectric Effect In…

drnikolatesla:

The History of the Photoelectric Effect

In 1905, Albert Einstein gained world fame for supposedly being the first to propose that light has a nature of both a wave and a particle. This theory lead to the development of “photons,” or photo-electrons, which describe light with a wave-particle duality. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theoretical physics and his explanation of the photoelectric effect. A theory that even today is still accepted as a certainty.

In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect, but it is a fact that Nikola Tesla was the first to explain the effect. Einstein was a very intelligent scientist, but he lacked wisdom. Unlike Einstein, Nikola Tesla wasn’t just a theoretical physicist who based all his theories off other scientists’ work (like James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz), but was an experimental physicist as well, who based all his theories off experimental research and data from which he himself conducted and recorded.

In 1896, with experiments with radiant energy and high-vacuum tubes, Nikola Tesla was the first to publicize that light had both particle-like and wave-like properties–predating Einstein and other quantum physicists by nine years. With his high-vacuum tubes, or cathode ray tubes, Tesla shot cathode rays at different metals noting the differences in reflection the streams made upon the metals. Initially, he noticed the streams, being shot at the metals like bullets, broke into smaller particles, and or, vibrations of extremely high frequencies (technically, this would be the first demonstration of breaking electrons into subatomic particles), but upon further investigation he proved that they were indeed just waves. This lead to his conclusion that light is merely a transverse, longitudinal disturbance in the ether, involving alternate compressions and rarefactions, or in his words, “light can be nothing else than a sound wave in the ether.” Tesla would go on to file a patent based off these experiments titled, “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy,” published in 1901.

Tesla’s conclusions would obviously get ignored by main stream science, but it seems that today’s technology, which seemingly works off Albert Einstein’s theories, are in reality, working off Tesla’s.

Ahead of his time!

drnikolatesla: The History of the Photoelectric Effect In…

drnikolatesla:

The History of the Photoelectric Effect

In 1905, Albert Einstein gained world fame for supposedly being the first to propose that light has a nature of both a wave and a particle. This theory lead to the development of “photons,” or photo-electrons, which describe light with a wave-particle duality. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theoretical physics and his explanation of the photoelectric effect. A theory that even today is still accepted as a certainty.

In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect, but it is a fact that Nikola Tesla was the first to explain the effect. Einstein was a very intelligent scientist, but he lacked wisdom. Unlike Einstein, Nikola Tesla wasn’t just a theoretical physicist who based all his theories off other scientists’ work (like James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz), but was an experimental physicist as well, who based all his theories off experimental research and data from which he himself conducted and recorded.

In 1896, with experiments with radiant energy and high-vacuum tubes, Nikola Tesla was the first to publicize that light had both particle-like and wave-like properties–predating Einstein and other quantum physicists by nine years. With his high-vacuum tubes, or cathode ray tubes, Tesla shot cathode rays at different metals noting the differences in reflection the streams made upon the metals. Initially, he noticed the streams, being shot at the metals like bullets, broke into smaller particles, and or, waves of extremely high frequencies (technically, this would be the first demonstration of breaking electrons into subatomic particles), but upon further investigation he proved that they were indeed just waves. This lead to his conclusion that light is merely a longitudinal disturbance in the ether, involving alternate compressions and rarefactions, or in his words, “light can be nothing else than a sound wave in the ether.” Tesla would go on to file a patent based off these experiments titled, “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy,” published in 1901.

Tesla’s conclusions would obviously get ignored by main stream science, but it seems that today’s technology, which seemingly works off Albert Einstein’s theories, are in reality, working off Tesla’s.

Ahead of his time!