Category: solar energy

Regular

“Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor to Transmit Power ‘Round Earth.”

Famed Scientist, on Eve of 76th Birthday, Says He Has Succeeded in Harnessing ‘Penetrating Rays’ to Operate Small Motive Device

I have harnessed the cosmic rays and caused them to operate a motive device,“ declared Nikola Tesla, famous scientist, in an interview last evening on the eve of his 76th birthday.

Tesla, who all his life has worked in seclusion and struggles to avoid publicity with all the vigor with which movie stars court it, permits a handful of “science writers” to violate the rules as a sort of birthday party.

It is very much of an ordeal to the tall, straight, meticulously attired gentleman whose inventions have been epoch-making and who is unable to understand why the public should be interested in him.

Cosmic ray investigation is a subject that is very close to me. I was the first to discover these rays and I naturally feel toward them as I would toward my own flesh and blood,” said Dr. Tesla.

His statement is borne out by reference to clippings of interviews with him more than a quarter of a century ago in which he discussed “penetrating rays” and to which not much attention was given as no one was able to comprehend the nature of them as he discussed them.

I have advanced a theory of the cosmic rays and at every step of my investigations I have found it completely justified.” said Dr. Tesla.

Dr. Tesla stated that the amount of power he was able to develop in the device was insignificant.

I asked him if its power output was of the same magnitude as that of Crookes’ radiometer, the device with four vanes in a glass tube that are rotated by sunlight, and which is often seen in jewelers’ windows. He stated that the power output was many thousand times that of a Crookes’ radiometer.

“The attractive features of the Cosmic rays is their constancy. They shower down on us throughout the whole 24 hours, and if a plant is developed to use their power it will not require devices for storing energy as would be necessary with devices using wind, tide or sunlight.”

“All of my investigations seem to point to the conclusion that they are small particles, each carrying so small a charge that we are justified in calling them neutrons. They move with great velocity, exceeding that of light.

“More than 25 years ago I began my efforts to harness the cosmic rays and I can now state that I have succeeded in operating a motive device by means of them.”

I was able to prevail upon Dr. Tesla to give me some idea of the principle upon which his cosmic ray motor works.

“I will tell you in the most general way,” he said. “The cosmic ray ionizes the air, setting free many charges—ions and electrons. These charges are captured in a condenser which is made to discharge through the circuit of the motor.”

“I have hopes of building my motor on a large scale, but circumstances have not been favorable to carrying out my plan.”

I asked Dr. Tesla if his plan for transmission of power between planets involved the use of cosmic rays, and he stated that the two projects have no connection whatever. He stated that he has continued his experimental work in the laboratory on the interplanetary power transmission project and is certain of its feasibility.

I also asked him if he is still at work on the project which he inaugurated in the ‘90’s of transmitting power wirelessly anywhere on earth. He is at work on it, he said, and it could be put into operation.

He at that time announced two principles which could be used in this project. In one the ionizing of the upper air would make it as good a conductor of electricity as a metal.

In the other the power would be transmitted by creating “standing waves” in the earth by charging the earth with a giant electrical oscillator that would make the earth vibrate electrically in the same way a bell vibrates mechanically when it is struck with a hammer.

“I do not use the plan involving the conductivity of the upper strata of the air,” he said, “but I use the conductivity of the earth itself, and in this I need no wires to send electrical energy to any part of the globe.”

(Interview by John O’Neill. Brooklyn Eagle, July 10, 1932.)

Regular

“RAIN CAN BE CONTROLLED AND HYDRAULIC FORCE PROVIDED, SAYS NIKOLA TESLA, IF WE TURN TO SUN FOR POWER.”

By Edward Marshall

Syracuse Herald, February 29, 1920.

… —As time goes on we may find the harnessing of the sun—s rays less objectionable, especially as great improvements are possible in the methods and devices so far employed… . —wind power is not to be distained— … —terrestrial heat, on an immense scale appears quite feasible and there is a strong probability that at a time not too distant projects will be seriously undertaken–…

Can the world get from its rainfall all the power it needs or ever will need, though the demand for power be multiplied a hundredfold?

Nikola Tesla tells me that this can be done.

No living human being is better qualified to speak.

He has been studying all our various sources of energy and rejects them all save this.

He sees no hope in the suggested possibility of harnessing atomic energy; he sees none in the suggested utilization of the vast force of the ocean’s tides; the power of ocean waves cannot be harnessed; heat from the earth’s interior for the creation of steam is not generally available or to be made available; sun-engines are not practical; windpower is not dependable; coal and oil are decreasing in availability and therefore increasing in cost.

So Tesla, realizing that the sun is the source of all the energy we know or ever can know, plans to harness it through the medium of water power.

And he makes the amazing statement that water-power can be controlled almost at will through the control of rainfall, which he regards now as a fully feasible thing.

LEAVES HIS CONTROL PLAN A MYSTERY.

Perhaps of all the fascinating things he says in the interview which follows, this statement that rainfall can be controlled is the most engaging. But he leaves his plan for it a mystery.

Our talk resulted from a casual statement made recently while we were discussing for publication in the Syracuse Herald the announcement from London that Marconi had heard upon his wireless instruments sounds which might have been, he thought, signals from inter-stellar space and possibly from Mars.

That afternoon Tesla had spoken of our need for new power sources and, when I asked him if they were available, had answered:

“Certainly.”

So yesterday I asked him to explain.

One must listen to him with profound respect as one of the world’s greatest scientists. To catalogue his discoveries and inventions would be an extraordinary task, which I shall not attempt.

His name is known throughout the progressive world.

“Are our present sources of power sufficient for our future needs?” I asked.

“No.” said Mr. Tesla.

“Have we other sources to be utilized?”

“One, only, I believe,” he answered, “the fundamental source, the sun, manifested through water.”

“But water power, even though it be developed, is not generally enough distributed to fill all our needs.”

“That can be arranged,” said this extraordinary man, and then began a smooth, unhesitant statement of the whole vast problem which in the last analysis is the problem of human comfort and well being. Indeed, of human life itself. And this rapid fire of scientific fact gathered force and speed as it progressed, carrying me over technicalities and through scientific terms without a stop until its final vital statement about control of rainfall at man’s will left me gasping.

Power of Future.

“Technical improvements, more or less essential,” said Mr. Tesla, “have made it possible for mankind to aggregate in civilized communities, thus economizing effort, insuring the comfort and safety of existence, and raising life in general to a higher plane of culture and refinement.

"In the beginnings, therefore, we were wholly subject to the forces of nature. Our ultimate goal seems to be their complete mastery. Millions of human beings, almost never or even never see the sun, and yet our dependence on it is absolute.

"Those few who are mindful of the future long ago ceased to look upon power as a mere means of securing individual safety and comfort, learning to attach to it a significance national, international and humanitarian.

"Not only this, but the idea is slowly gaining ground that the resources we command belong as much to coming generations as to our own and the thoughts of engineers and inventors are turning to the discovery of such an improvement in methods as will do away with the barbarous waste now going on, which, in the end, must exhaust our stores.

"This is the reason why all sorts of sensational announcements relative to new sources of power create such a hysterical interest and find such ready if sometimes unintelligent acceptance. Not more than one out of a thousand, even among professional men, is able to sift the wheat from the chaff.

Dream of Atomic Energy.

"As an instance I may refer to the harnessing of atomic energy which now seems to be the plan uppermost in the speculative public mind. Much of the discussion on this subject is of the same order of merit as talk about communion with the spirts of the dead, or similar nonsense springing from a morbid craving for the perpetuation of self. It is contradictory to all natural laws, reason and experience.

Water Power Ideal

"In most of the processes of transformation we are confronted with appalling waste and definite limits exist to improvements aiming at economy. No amount of ingenuity can ever circumvent the natural laws imposing these restrictions.

"Water power is a remarkable exception in this respect. In hydraulic development the wheel can have an efficiency of 85 and the dynamo can have an efficiency of 98 per cent. so that the combined efficiency is over 83 per cent. That is to say, we are enabled in this way usefully to apply almost the entire energy furnished by the sun.

"Not only this but the apparatus is simple, well-nigh indestructible, and requires virtually no attention.

"Unfortunately this source of power supply is not adequate to meet all our needs, although the theoretical energy of falling water is, so to speak, unlimited. Assuming for the rain clouds an average height of 15,000 feet and an annual precipitation of 33 inches, the power over the whole area of the United States amounts to more than twelve billion horsepower but a large portion of the potential energy is transformed into heat by friction of the rain drops against the air so that the actual mechanical energy is much smaller.

"Most of the water comes from a height of something like 2,000 feet, and all in all represents over one-half a billion horsepower, but in the form but in the form of available waterpower we cannot obtain more than a fall of 100 feet, so that by harnessing all the falls in the United States not more than eighty million horsepower can be developed.

"So far we have harnessed approximately 8,000,000 horsepower in this country, thus effecting a saving equivalent to nearly one-third of the entire coal mined. By extensive damming the power derived can be greatly increased, possibly to several hundred million horsepower, giving us more power by far than we have now with all our coal. But this is not the limit.

On the Eve of Great Feats.

"We are on the eve of accomplishments which will be of tremendous consequence to the future advancement of the human race. One of these is the control of the precipitation of moisture.

"The water is evaporated and thus raised against the force of gravity. It is then held in suspension in the vapor which we call clouds. Air currents carry this vapor, hither and yon, often to distant regions, where it may remain for long periods at a height, in a state of delicate suspension.

"When the equilibrium is disturbed the water falls to earth [in the] form of rain and through rills and rivers flows back to the ocean.

"Thus the sun, those heat causes the evaporation, even maintains this life sustaining stream. The energy necessary to cause the precipitation of the rain, compared to that rain’s potential energy when released, is like that of the spark setting off a charge of dynamite compared to the dynamite.

"If this part of the natural process were under the control of man he could transform the entire globe.

Many schemes have been proposed to this end, none of which have knowledge offering the remotest chance of success.

“But I have ascertained that with proper apparatus this wonder can be performed.

"Any amount of power will then be at our disposal; we can make out of deserts fertile land and create lakes and rivers almost without effort on our part.

"However our triumph would not be complete if the power could not be conveyed to distances without limit. This achievement, to, is now within our reach. With my wireless system it is practicable to transmit electrical energy over a distance of 12,000 miles with a loss not exceeding 5 per cent. I can conceive of no advances which would be more desirable at this time and be more beneficial to the further progress of mankind.”

— (Copyright by Edward Marshall Syndicate, Inc.)

Regular

drnikolatesla:

“The External Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays.”

By Nikola Tesla

October 13, 1932, New York:

“A little over one century ago many astronomers, including Laplace still thought that the system of heavenly bodies was unalterable and that they would perform their motions in the same manner through an eternity. But the gradual perfection of instruments and refinement of methods of investigation, achieved since that time, has led to the recognition that there is a continuous change going on in the celestial regions subjecting all bodies to ever varying influence. Where this change is leading to, and what is to be its final phase, have become questions of supreme scientific interest. In a communication to the Royal Society of Edinburgh dated April 19, 1852 and the Philosophical Magazine of October of the same year, Lord Kelvin drew attention to the general tendency in nature towards dissipation of mechanical energy, a fact borne out in daily observation of thermo-dynamic and dynamo-thermic processes and one of ominous significance. It meant that the driving force of the universe was steadily decreasing and that ultimately all of its motive energy will be exhausted none remaining available for mechanical work. In the macro-cosmos, with its countless conception, this process might require billion of years for its consummation; but in the infinitesimal worlds of the micro-cosmos it must have been quickly completed. Such being the case then, according to an experimental findings and deductions of positive science, any material substance (cooled down to the absolute zero of temperature) should be devoid of an internal movement and energy, so to speak, dead.

“This idea of the great philosopher, who later honored me with his friendship, had a fascinating effect on my mind and in meditating over it I was struck by the thought that if there is energy within the substance it can only come from without. This truth was so manifest to me that I expressed it in the following axiom: "There is no energy in matter except that absorbed from the medium.” Lord Kelvin gave us a picture of a dying universe, of a clockwork wound up and running down, inevitably doomed to come to a full stop in the far, far off future. It was a gloomy view incompatible with artistic, scientific and mechanical sense. I asked myself again and again, was there not some force winding up the clock as it runs down? The axiom I had formulated gave me a clue. If all energy is supplied to matter from without then this all important function must be performed by the medium. Yes–but how?

“I pondered over this oldest and greatest of all riddles of physical science a long time in vain, despairingly remind of the words of the poet:

"Wo fass ich dich unendliche Nat—r?

Euch Bruste wo Ihr Quellen alles Lebens

An denen Himmel und Erd— hangt.”

“Where, boundless nature, can I hold you fast?

And where you breasts?  Wells that sustain

All life – the heaven and the earth are nursed. ”

                                      Goethe.  Faust 

“What I strove for seemed unattainable, but a kind fate favored me and a few inspired experiments lifted the veil. It was a revelation wonderful and incredible explaining many mysteries of nature and disclosing as in a lightening flash the illusionary character of some modem theories incidentally also bearing out the universal truth of the above axiom.

"When radio-active rays were discovered their investigators believed them to be due to liberation of atomic energy in the form of waves. This being impossible in the light of the preceding I concluded that they were produced by some external disturbance and composed of electrified particles. My theory was not seriously taken although it appeared simple and plausible. Suppose that bullets are fired against a wall. Where a missile strikes the material is crushed and spatters in all directions radial from the place of impact. In this example it is perfectly clear that the energy of the flying pieces can only be derived from that of the bullets. But in manifestation of radio-activity no such proof could be advanced and it was, therefore, of the first importance to demonstrate experimentally the existence of this miraculous disturbance in the medium. I was rewarded in these efforts with quick success largely because of the efficient method I adopted which consisted in deriving from a great mass of air, ionized by the disturbance, a current, storing its energy in a condenser and discharging the same through an indicating device. This plan did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope first employed and was described by me in articles and patents from 1900 to 1905. It was logical to expect, judging from the behavior of known radiations, that the chief source of the new rays would be the sun, but this supposition was contradicted by observations and theoretical considerations which disclosed some surprising facts in this connection.

"Light and heat rays are absorbed in their passage through a medium in a certain proportion to its density. The ether, although the most tenuous of all substances, is no exception to this rule. Its density has been first estimated by Lord Kelvin and conformably to his finding a column of one square centimeter cross section and of a length such that light, traveling at a rate of three hundred thousands kilometers per second, would require one year to traverse it, should weigh 4.8 grams. This is just about the weigh of a prism of ordinary glass of the same cross section and two centimeters length which, therefore, may be assumed as the equivalent of the ether column in absorption. A column of the ether one thousand times longer would thus absorb as much light as twenty meters of glass. However, there are suns at distances of many thousands of light years and it is evident that virtually no light from them can reach the earth. But if these suns emit rays immensely more penetrative than those of light they will be slightly dimmed and so the aggregate amount of radiations pouring upon the earth from all sides will be overwhelmingly greater than that supplied to it by our luminary. If light and heat rays would be as penetrative as the cosmic, so fierce would be the perpetual glare and so scorching the heat that life on this and other planets could not exist.

"Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.

"It has been suggested that the cosmic rays are electrons or that they are the result of creation of new matter in the interstellar deserts. These views are too fantastic to be even for a moment seriously considered. They are natural outcroppings of this age of deep but unrational thinking, of impossible theories, the latest of which might, perhaps, deal with the curvature of time. What this world of ours would be if time were curved:

"As there exists considerable doubt in regard to the manner in which the intensity of the cosmic rays varies with altitude the following simple formula derived from my early experimental data may be welcome to those who are interested in the subject.

I = (W+P) / (W+p)

"In this expression W is the weight in kilograms of a column of lead of one square centimeter cross section and one hundred and eighty centimeters length, P the normal pressure of the atmosphere at sea level in kilograms per square centimeter, p the atmospheric pressure at the altitude under consideration and in like measure and I the intensity of the radiation in terms of that at sea level which is taken as unit. Substituting the actual values for W and P, respectively 1.9809 and 1.0133 kilograms, the formula reduces to

I = 2.99421 / (1.9809 + p)

"Obviously, at sea level p = P hence the intensity is equal to 1, this being the unit of measurement. On the other hand, at the extreme limit of the atmosphere p = 0 and the intensity I = 1.5115. 

"The maximum increase with height is, consequently, a little over fifty-one percent. This formula, based on my finding that the absorption is proportionate to the density of the medium whatever it be, is fairly accurate. Other investigators might find different values for W but they will undoubtedly observe the same character of dependence, namely, that the intensity increases proportionately to the height for a few kilometers and then at a gradually lessening rate.”

Regular

“The External Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays.”

By Nikola Tesla

October 13, 1932, New York:

“A little over one century ago many astronomers, including Laplace still thought that the system of heavenly bodies was unalterable and that they would perform their motions in the same manner through an eternity. But the gradual perfection of instruments and refinement of methods of investigation, achieved since that time, has led to the recognition that there is a continuous change going on in the celestial regions subjecting all bodies to ever varying influence. Where this change is leading to, and what is to be its final phase, have become questions of supreme scientific interest. In a communication to the Royal Society of Edinburgh dated April 19, 1852 and the Philosophical Magazine of October of the same year, Lord Kelvin drew attention to the general tendency in nature towards dissipation of mechanical energy, a fact borne out in daily observation of thermo-dynamic and dynamo-thermic processes and one of ominous significance. It meant that the driving force of the universe was steadily decreasing and that ultimately all of its motive energy will be exhausted none remaining available for mechanical work. In the macro-cosmos, with its countless conception, this process might require billion of years for its consummation; but in the infinitesimal worlds of the micro-cosmos it must have been quickly completed. Such being the case then, according to an experimental findings and deductions of positive science, any material substance (cooled down to the absolute zero of temperature) should be devoid of an internal movement and energy, so to speak, dead.

"This idea of the great philosopher, who later honored me with his friendship, had a fascinating effect on my mind and in meditating over it I was struck by the thought that if there is energy within the substance it can only come from without. This truth was so manifest to me that I expressed it in the following axiom: "There is no energy in matter except that absorbed from the medium.” Lord Kelvin gave us a picture of a dying universe, of a clockwork wound up and running down, inevitably doomed to come to a full stop in the far, far off future. It was a gloomy view incompatible with artistic, scientific and mechanical sense. I asked myself again and again, was there not some force winding up the clock as it runs down? The axiom I had formulated gave me a clue. If all energy is supplied to matter from without then this all important function must be performed by the medium. Yes–but how?

“I pondered over this oldest and greatest of all riddles of physical science a long time in vain, despairingly remind of the words of the poet:

"Wo fass ich dich unendliche Nat—r?

Euch Bruste wo Ihr Quellen alles Lebens

An denen Himmel und Erd— hangt.”

“Where, boundless nature, can I hold you fast?

And where you breasts?  Wells that sustain

All life – the heaven and the earth are nursed. ”

                                      Goethe.  Faust 

“What I strove for seemed unattainable, but a kind fate favored me and a few inspired experiments lifted the veil. It was a revelation wonderful and incredible explaining many mysteries of nature and disclosing as in a lightening flash the illusionary character of some modem theories incidentally also bearing out the universal truth of the above axiom.

"When radio-active rays were discovered their investigators believed them to be due to liberation of atomic energy in the form of waves. This being impossible in the light of the preceding I concluded that they were produced by some external disturbance and composed of electrified particles. My theory was not seriously taken although it appeared simple and plausible. Suppose that bullets are fired against a wall. Where a missile strikes the material is crushed and spatters in all directions radial from the place of impact. In this example it is perfectly clear that the energy of the flying pieces can only be derived from that of the bullets. But in manifestation of radio-activity no such proof could be advanced and it was, therefore, of the first importance to demonstrate experimentally the existence of this miraculous disturbance in the medium. I was rewarded in these efforts with quick success largely because of the efficient method I adopted which consisted in deriving from a great mass of air, ionized by the disturbance, a current, storing its energy in a condenser and discharging the same through an indicating device. This plan did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope first employed and was described by me in articles and patents from 1900 to 1905. It was logical to expect, judging from the behavior of known radiations, that the chief source of the new rays would be the sun, but this supposition was contradicted by observations and theoretical considerations which disclosed some surprising facts in this connection.

"Light and heat rays are absorbed in their passage through a medium in a certain proportion to its density. The ether, although the most tenuous of all substances, is no exception to this rule. Its density has been first estimated by Lord Kelvin and conformably to his finding a column of one square centimeter cross section and of a length such that light, traveling at a rate of three hundred thousands kilometers per second, would require one year to traverse it, should weigh 4.8 grams. This is just about the weigh of a prism of ordinary glass of the same cross section and two centimeters length which, therefore, may be assumed as the equivalent of the ether column in absorption. A column of the ether one thousand times longer would thus absorb as much light as twenty meters of glass. However, there are suns at distances of many thousands of light years and it is evident that virtually no light from them can reach the earth. But if these suns emit rays immensely more penetrative than those of light they will be slightly dimmed and so the aggregate amount of radiations pouring upon the earth from all sides will be overwhelmingly greater than that supplied to it by our luminary. If light and heat rays would be as penetrative as the cosmic, so fierce would be the perpetual glare and so scorching the heat that life on this and other planets could not exist.

"Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.

"It has been suggested that the cosmic rays are electrons or that they are the result of creation of new matter in the interstellar deserts. These views are too fantastic to be even for a moment seriously considered. They are natural outcroppings of this age of deep but unrational thinking, of impossible theories, the latest of which might, perhaps, deal with the curvature of time. What this world of ours would be if time were curved:

"As there exists considerable doubt in regard to the manner in which the intensity of the cosmic rays varies with altitude the following simple formula derived from my early experimental data may be welcome to those who are interested in the subject.

I = (W+P) / (W+p)

"In this expression W is the weight in kilograms of a column of lead of one square centimeter cross section and one hundred and eighty centimeters length, P the normal pressure of the atmosphere at sea level in kilograms per square centimeter, p the atmospheric pressure at the altitude under consideration and in like measure and I the intensity of the radiation in terms of that at sea level which is taken as unit. Substituting the actual values for W and P, respectively 1.9809 and 1.0133 kilograms, the formula reduces to

I = 2.99421 / (1.9809 + p)

"Obviously, at sea level p = P hence the intensity is equal to 1, this being the unit of measurement. On the other hand, at the extreme limit of the atmosphere p = 0 and the intensity I = 1.5115. 

"The maximum increase with height is, consequently, a little over fifty-one percent. This formula, based on my finding that the absorption is proportionate to the density of the medium whatever it be, is fairly accurate. Other investigators might find different values for W but they will undoubtedly observe the same character of dependence, namely, that the intensity increases proportionately to the height for a few kilometers and then at a gradually lessening rate.”

Regular

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Nikola Tesla and the True Explanation of the Photoelectric Effect

by J. J. J.

The photoelectric effect is a phenomenon which occurs when electromagnetic radiation, such as ultraviolet light, is exposed to certain metallic objects causing the metals to emit electrons from their surface.

In 1905, Albert Einstein gained world fame for supposedly being the first scientist to successfully describe this effect. His theory was that light had little packets (quanta) of energy, or photons, and when exposed to metallic objects at certain frequencies the electrons in these metallic objects would absorb this energy and be broken off from their source. Hence, photoelectrons.

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This theory led to the wave-particle duality of light since light seemed to act as both a wave and a particle. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theoretical and mathematical explanations of this effect. A theory that even today is still accepted as a fact. But According to experiments, research and data collected by Nikola Tesla, Einstein and many other scientists overlooked some key factors in their interpretations of the effect. 

The history of the photoelectric effect goes back to 1887, when Heinrich Hertz first observed electromagnetic waves in experiments, first predicted by James Clerk Maxwell over twenty years before. After this great discovery, Phillip Lenard and many other scientists, including Nikola Tesla, followed Hertz’ work with their own investigations into the matter.

In 1889, after freeing himself from work in Pittsburgh, Tesla returned to New York to begin work on high-frequency apparatuses, wireless transmission, and to develop theories on the relationship between light and electromagnetic radiation. It was right around this time in Tesla’s life when he was starting to gain fame. His alternating current system was finally getting recognition, and he was being asked to give lectures and demonstrations all over the world. On top of this, he was making new discoveries one after another. One very important discovery he made was the discovery of X-rays in 1884, which he called “shadowgraphs.” These mysterious radiations were still very new to him at this time so he wouldn’t realize their importance until a year later when Wilhelm Roentgen made public the same discovery that would win him the first ever Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. Unfortunately, Tesla’s laboratory would burn down eight months before Roentgen announced his discovery, and the inventor would lose all his laboratory data, notes, plans, photographs, tools, and inventions. So it must be noted that Nikola Tesla was indeed the first scientist to discover X-rays.

After recovering from the fire that destroyed his laboratory March of 1895, a tragedy that set him back a great deal in work and recognition, Nikola Tesla was finally able to resume his work in 1896. With experiments on radiant energy, such as radio waves and X-rays, not only would Nikola Tesla become the first scientist to discovery radioactivity and electrons, but he would be the first scientist to propose that light and other electromagnetic radiations had both particle-like and wave-like properties–predating Henri Becquerel’s radioactivity discovery by a few months, J.J. Thompson’s discovery of the electron by a couple years, and Einstein and other quantum physicist’s light theory by nearly a decade. But Tesla’s views on these effects were much different than other’s.

In experiments with his newly developed high-vacuum tubes and his high-frequency disruptive coil (Tesla Coil), Tesla shot cathode, and other rays at different metals noting the differences in reflection the streams made upon the metals. His experiments indicated six conclusions.

  1. His highly exhausted bulbs emit material streams which, impinging on the metallic surfaces experimented with, are reflected.
  2. These streams are formed of matter in some primary or elementary condition (what we now consider photons/or electrons).
  3. These material streams are probably the same agent which is the cause of the electro-motive tension between metals in close proximity, or actual contact, and they may possibly, to some extent, determine the energy of combination of the metals with oxygen.
  4. Every metal or conductor is more or less a source of such streams.
  5. These streams must be produced by some radiations which exist in the medium.
  6. These streams resembling the cathodic must be emitted by the sun (cosmic radiations) and probably also other sources of radiant energy, such as an arc light or Bunsen burner. 

He considered all conclusions incontrovertible, and with these results, Tesla believed it probable that there is a continuous supply of such radiations in the medium in some form which must come from the sun. Later experiments with the above conclusion would lead Tesla to his discovery of cosmic rays, which he also discovered come from not only our sun, but from every other star outside our solar system. This discovery would be fifteen years before Victor Hess who also won a Nobel Prize for this discovery, and who even today we still recognize as the discoverer of cosmic rays. 

Tesla also suggested that the primary particles composing the radiations are broken into smaller particles by impact against the metals, and are thereby enabled to pass into the air. His analogy was that of shooting a bullet at a wall. When the bullet strikes the wall it is crushed and spatters in all directions radial to where it hit the wall.

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So according to Tesla, the energy from the flying pieces can only come from that of the bullets, and the results will differ based on the density of the wall, and or the velocity of the bullets. For instance, X-rays are incomparably smaller than cathode rays and have a higher velocity, which is why we are unable to detect x-rays and assume them to be massless photons, while cathode rays are slower so we have been able to label them electrons. This is how Tesla’s radioactivity theory differs from today’s. He realized it was the cosmic rays, and other sources of radiation that cause the radioactivity on earth. We believe the metals, or the elements themselves are producing the radioactivity and emitting electrons, like Einstein’s photoelectric theory suggests, but Tesla’s theory obviously suggests otherwise.

Now to make the above experiments more precise and prove his cosmic radiation theory further, Tesla developed a better method. He used two conductors and connected them to terminals of a condenser which had a considerable electrostatic captivity. One conductor was a metal plate (’P’ in Fig. 1) which was exposed to the Sun’s, and other radiations, and the other being grounded (’p’ in fig. 1) since it is a supply of negative electricity. Now Tesla could derive from a great mass of air, ionized by the radiation disturbance, a current, and store its energy in the condenser (’C’ in Fig. 1).

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He could also discharge the current through an indicating device. This method did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope and gave Tesla much better results. He filed a patent based off these results titled, “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy,” published in 1901. This would obviously be a precursor to solar panels, but still more advanced than today’s panels because it ran off cosmic radiation and not just our sun’s light. 

So in order to get results like Tesla obtained, one would need to reproduce Tesla’s experiments and patents. You can search anywhere online and see demonstrations of the photoelectric effect, but all are using the weakest instruments to demonstrate the effect–like a basic ultraviolet light and an electroscope. The fact that today’s physical science relies on such demonstrations to prove its theories seems to show that science may not be as advanced as we tend to believe.   

Tesla’s work would obviously get ignored by main stream science, but it seems that today’s technology, which seemingly works off Albert Einstein’s theories, are in reality, working off Tesla’s.

“There can be no great harm in a student taking an erroneous view, but when great minds err, the world must dearly pay for their mistakes.”

–Nikola Tesla

“On Light And Other High Frequency Phenomena.” Lecture delivered before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, February 1893, and before the National Electric Light Association, St. Louis, March 1893.

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*Audio Listen* “Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor May Transmit Power ‘Round Earth.”

*Audio Listen* “Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor May Transmit Power ‘Round Earth.”:

Happy Sunday everyone! Thought I’d try something new and share an interview with Nikola Tesla through an audio listen. Let me know what ya think about this? May or may not continue with it. Enjoy (((:

drnikolatesla: ***NIKOLA TESLA’S INVENTION FOR COLLECTING THE…

drnikolatesla:

***NIKOLA TESLA’S INVENTION FOR COLLECTING THE UNLIMITED ENERGY FROM COSMIC RADIATIONS***


US Patent No. 685,957: Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, NIKOLA TESLA, a citizen of the United States… have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy…

It is well known that certain radiations–such as those of ultra-violet light, cathodic, Roentgen rays, or the like–possess the property of charging and discharging conductors of electricity, the discharge being particularly noticeable when the conductor upon which the rays impinge is negatively electrified. These radiations are generally considered to be ether vibrations of extremely small wave lengths, and in explanation of the phenomena noted it has been assumed by some authorities that they ionize or render conducting the atmosphere through which they are propagated. My own experiments and observations, however, lead me to conclusions more in accord with the theory heretofore advanced by me that sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocity minute particles of matter which are strongly electrified, and therefore capable of charging an electrical conductor, or, even if not so, may at any rate discharge an electrified conductor either by carrying off bodily its charge or otherwise.

My present application is based upon a discovery which I have made that when rays, or, radiations of the above kind are permitted to fall upon an insulated conducting-body connected to one of the terminals of a condenser while the other terminal of the same is made by independent means to receive or to carry away electricity a current flows into the condenser so long as the insulated body is exposed to the rays, and under the conditions hereinafter specified an indefinite accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser takes place. This energy after a suitable time interval, during which the rays are allowed to act, may manifest itself in a powerful discharge, which may be utilized for the operation or control of mechanical or electrical devices or rendered useful in many other ways.

Figure 1 is a diagram showing the general arrangement of apparatus as usually employed.

Fig. 2 is a similar diagram illustrating more in detail typical forms of the devices or elements used in practice.

Figs. 3 and 4 are diagrammatical representations of modified arrangements suitable for special purposes.

…It will be found that when the radiations of the sun or of any other source capable of producing the effects before described fall upon the plate P an accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser C will result. This phenomenon, I believe, is best explained as follows: The sun, as well as other sources of radiant energy, throws off minute particles of matter positively electrified, which, impinging upon the plate P, communicate continuously an electrical charge to the same. The opposite terminal of the condenser being connected to the ground, which may be considered as a vast reservoir of negative electricity, a feeble current flows continuously into the condenser, and inasmuch as these supposed particles are of an inconceivably small radius or curvature, and consequently charged to a relatively very high potential, this charging of the condenser may continue, as I have actually observed, almost indefinitely, even to the point of rupturing the dielectric. If the device d be of such character that it will operate to close the circuit in which it is included when the potential in the condenser has reached a certain magnitude, the accumulated charge will pass through the circuit, which also includes the receiver R, and operate the latter…

–NIKOLA TESLA.

Having described my invention, what I claim is–

1. An apparatus for utilizing radiant energy, compromising on combination a condenser, one armature of which is subjected to the action of rays or radiation, independent means for charging the other armature to be operated or controlled by the discharge of the condenser, as set forth.

2. An apparatus for utilizing radiant energy, comprising in combination, a condenser, one armature of which is subjected to the action of rays or radiations, independent means for charging the other armature, a local circuit connected with the condenser-terminals, a circuit-controller therein and means adapted to be operated or controlled by the discharge of the condenser when closed, as set forth.

3. An apparatus for utilizing radiant energy, comprising in combination, a condenser, one terminal of which is subjected to the action of rays or radiations, independent means for charging the other armature, a local circuit connected with the condenser-terminals, the local circuit is a circuit-controller therein dependent for operation on a given rise of potential in the condenser, and devices operated by the discharge of the condenser when the local circuit is closed, as set forth.

4. An apparatus for utilizing radiant in one terminal of which is subjected to the action of rays or radiations, and the other of which is connected with the ground, a circuit and apparatus therein adapted to be operated by the discharge of the accumulated in the condenser, as set forth.

5. An apparatus for utilizing radiant energy, comprising in combination, a condenser, one terminal of which is subjected to the action of rays or radiations and the other of which is connected with the ground, a local circuit connected with the condenser-terminals, a circuit-controller therein and means adapted to be operated by the discharge of ergy the condenser when the local circuit is closed, as set forth.

6. An apparatus for utilizing radiant energy, comprising in combination, a condenser, one terminal of which is subjected to the action of rays or radiations and the other of which is connected with the ground, a local circuit connected with the condenser-terminals, a circuit-controller therein adapted to .be operated by a given rise of potential in the condenser, and devices operated by the discharge of the condenser when the local circuit is closed, as set forth.

7. An apparatus for utilizing radiant energy, comprising a condenser, having minal connected to earth an elevated conducting-plate, which is adapted d the ot g one teradapted to be operated by a given rise of poher to an tential in the condenser, as set forth.

–NIKOLA TESLA

drnikolatesla: ***NIKOLA TESLA’S INVENTION FOR COLLECTING THE…

drnikolatesla:

***NIKOLA TESLA’S INVENTION FOR COLLECTING THE UNLIMITED ENERGY FROM COSMIC RADIATIONS***


US Patent No. 685,957: Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, NIKOLA TESLA, a citizen of the United States… have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy…

It is well known that certain radiations–such as those of ultra-violet light, cathodic, Roentgen rays, or the like–possess the property of charging and discharging conductors of electricity, the discharge being particularly noticeable when the conductor upon which the rays impinge is negatively electrified. These radiations are generally considered to be ether vibrations of extremely small wave lengths, and in explanation of the phenomena noted it has been assumed by some authorities that they ionize or render conducting the atmosphere through which they are propagated. My own experiments and observations, however, lead me to conclusions more in accord with the theory heretofore advanced by me that sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocity minute particles of matter which are strongly electrified, and therefore capable of charging an electrical conductor, or, even if not so, may at any rate discharge an electrified conductor either by carrying off bodily its charge or otherwise.

My present application is based upon a discovery which I have made that when rays, or, radiations of the above kind are permitted to fall upon an insulated conducting-body connected to one of the terminals of a condenser while the other terminal of the same is made by independent means to receive or to carry away electricity a current flows into the condenser so long as the insulated body is exposed to the rays, and under the conditions hereinafter specified an indefinite accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser takes place. This energy after a suitable time interval, during which the rays are allowed to act, may manifest itself in a powerful discharge, which may be utilized for the operation or control of mechanical or electrical devices or rendered useful in many other ways.

Figure 1 is a diagram showing the general arrangement of apparatus as usually employed.

Fig. 2 is a similar diagram illustrating more in detail typical forms of the devices or elements used in practice.

Figs. 3 and 4 are diagrammatical representations of modified arrangements suitable for special purposes.

…It will be found that when the radiations of the sun or of any other source capable of producing the effects before described fall upon the plate P an accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser C will result. This phenomenon, I believe, is best explained as follows: The sun, as well as other sources of radiant energy, throws off minute particles of matter positively electrified, which, impinging upon the plate P, communicate continuously an electrical charge to the same. The opposite terminal of the condenser being connected to the ground, which may be considered as a vast reservoir of negative electricity, a feeble current flows continuously into the condenser, and inasmuch as these supposed particles are of an inconceivably small radius or curvature, and consequently charged to a relatively very high potential, this charging of the condenser may continue, as I have actually observed, almost indefinitely, even to the point of rupturing the dielectric. If the device d be of such character that it will operate to close the circuit in which it is included when the potential in the condenser has reached a certain magnitude, the accumulated charge will pass through the circuit, which also includes the receiver R, and operate the latter…

–NIKOLA TESLA.

“I have harnessed the cosmic rays and caused them to operate a motive device.

“Cosmic ray investigation is a subject that is very close to me. I was the first to discover these rays and I naturally feel toward them as I would toward my own flesh and blood.

“I have advanced a theory of the cosmic rays and at every step of my investigations I have found it completely justified.

“The attractive features of the cosmic rays is their constancy. They shower down on us throughout the whole 24 hours, and if a plant is developed to use their power it will not require devices for storing energy as would be necessary with devices using wind, tide or sunlight.

“All of my investigations seem to point to the conclusion that they are small particles, each carrying so small a charge that we are justified in calling them neutrons. They move with great velocity, exceeding that of light.

“More than 25 years ago I began my efforts to harness the cosmic rays and I can now state that I have succeeded in operating a motive device by means of them.

“I will tell you in the most general way. The cosmic ray ionizes the air, setting free many charges—ions and electrons. These charges are captured in a condenser which is made to discharge through the circuit of the motor.

“I have hopes of building my motor on a large scale, but circumstances have not been favorable to carrying out my plan.

“I do not use the plan involving the conductivity of the upper strata of the air, but I use the conductivity of the earth itself, and in this I need no wires to send electrical energy to any part of the globe.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor May Transmit Power ‘Round Earth.” Brooklyn Eagle, July 10, 1932.

***NIKOLA TESLA’S INVENTION FOR COLLECTING THE UNLIMITED ENERGY…

***NIKOLA TESLA’S INVENTION FOR COLLECTING THE UNLIMITED ENERGY FROM COSMIC RADIATIONS***


US Patent No. 685,957: Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, NIKOLA TESLA, a citizen of the United States… have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy…

It is well known that certain radiations–such as those of ultra-violet light, cathodic, Roentgen rays, or the like–possess the property of charging and discharging conductors of electricity, the discharge being particularly noticeable when the conductor upon which the rays impinge is negatively electrified. These radiations are generally considered to be ether vibrations of extremely small wave lengths, and in explanation of the phenomena noted it has been assumed by some authorities that they ionize or render conducting the atmosphere through which they are propagated. My own experiments and observations, however, lead me to conclusions more in accord with the theory heretofore advanced by me that sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocity minute particles of matter which are strongly electrified, and therefore capable of charging an electrical conductor, or, even if not so, may at any rate discharge an electrified conductor either by carrying off bodily its charge or otherwise.

My present application is based upon a discovery which I have made that when rays, or, radiations of the above kind are permitted to fall upon an insulated conducting-body connected to one of the terminals of a condenser while the other terminal of the same is made by independent means to receive or to carry away electricity a current flows into the condenser so long as the insulated body is exposed to the rays, and under the conditions hereinafter specified an indefinite accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser takes place. This energy after a suitable time interval, during which the rays are allowed to act, may manifest itself in a powerful discharge, which may be utilized for the operation or control of mechanical or electrical devices or rendered useful in many other ways.

Figure 1 is a diagram showing the general arrangement of apparatus as usually employed.

Fig. 2 is a similar diagram illustrating more in detail typical forms of the devices or elements used in practice.

Figs. 3 and 4 are diagrammatical representations of modified arrangements suitable for special purposes.

…It will be found that when the radiations of the sun or of any other source capable of producing the effects before described fall upon the plate P an accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser C will result. This phenomenon, I believe, is best explained as follows: The sun, as well as other sources of radiant energy, throws off minute particles of matter positively electrified, which, impinging upon the plate P, communicate continuously an electrical charge to the same. The opposite terminal of the condenser being connected to the ground, which may be considered as a vast reservoir of negative electricity, a feeble current flows continuously into the condenser, and inasmuch as these supposed particles are of an inconceivably small radius or curvature, and consequently charged to a relatively very high potential, this charging of the condenser may continue, as I have actually observed, almost indefinitely, even to the point of rupturing the dielectric. If the device d be of such character that it will operate to close the circuit in which it is included when the potential in the condenser has reached a certain magnitude, the accumulated charge will pass through the circuit, which also includes the receiver R, and operate the latter…

–NIKOLA TESLA.

“As to the idea of rendering the energy of the sun available for industrial purposes, it fascinated…

“As to the idea of rendering the energy of the sun available for industrial purposes, it fascinated me early but I must admit it was only long after I discovered the rotating magnetic field that it took a firm hold upon my mind. In assailing the problem I found two possible ways of solving it. Either power was to be developed on the spot by converting the energy of the sun’s radiations or the energy of vast reservoirs was to be transmitted economically to any distance. Though there were other possible sources of economical power, only the two solutions mentioned offer the ideal feature of power being obtained without any consumption of material. After long thought I finally arrived at two solutions, but on the first of these, namely, that referring to the development of power in any locality from the sun’s radiations, I can not dwell at present. The system of power transmission without wires, in the form in which I have described it recently, originated in this manner. Starting from two facts that the earth was a conductor insulated in space, and that a body can not be charged without causing an equivalent displacement of electricity in the earth, I undertook to construct a machine suited for creating as large a displacement as possible of the earth’s electricity.

“This machine was simply to charge and discharge in rapid succession a body insulated in space, thus altering periodically the amount of electricity in the earth, and consequently the pressure all over its surface. It was nothing but what in mechanics is a pump, forcing water from a large reservoir into a small one and back again. Primarily I contemplated only the sending of messages to great distances in this manner, and I described the scheme in detail, pointing out on that occasion the importance of ascertaining certain electrical conditions of the earth. The attractive feature of this plan was that the intensity of the signals should diminish very little with the distance, and, in fact, should not diminish at all, if it were not for certain losses occurring, chiefly in the atmosphere. As all my previous ideas, this one, too, received the treatment of Marsyas, but it forms, nevertheless, the basis of what is now known as “wireless telegraphy.” This statement will bear rigorous examination, but it is not made with the intent of detracting from the merit of others. On the contrary, it is with great pleasure that I acknowledge the early work of Dr. Lodge, the brilliant experiments of Marconi, and of a later experimenter in this line, Dr. Slaby, of Berlin. Now, this idea I extended to a system of power transmission, and I submitted it to Helmholtz on the occasion of his visit to this country. He unhesitatingly said that power could certainly be transmitted in this manner, but he doubted that I could ever produce an apparatus capable of creating the high pressures of a number of million volts, which were required to attack the problem with any chance of success, and that I could overcome the difficulties of insulation. Impossible as this problem seemed at first, I was fortunate to master it in a comparatively short time, and it was in perfecting this apparatus that I came to a turning point in the development of this idea. I, namely, at once observed that the air, which is a perfect insulator for currents produced by ordinary apparatus, was easily traversed by currents furnished by my improved machine, giving a tension of something like 2,500,000 volts. A further investigation in this direction led to another valuable fact; namely, that the conductivity of the air for these currents increased very rapidly with its degree of rarefaction, and at once the transmission of energy through the upper strata of air, which, without such results as I have obtained, would be nothing more than a dream, became easily realizable. This appears all the more certain, as I found it quite practicable to transmit, under conditions such as exist in heights well explored, electrical energy in large amounts. I have thus overcome all the chief obstacles which originally stood in the way, and the success of my system now rests merely on engineering skill.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Tesla Describes His Efforts in Various Fields of Work.” The Sun, New York, November 21, 1898.