Category: quotes

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drnikolatesla:

“The Singular Misconception of the Wireless.”

By Nikola Tesla

“Famous Scientific Illusions.” Electrical Experimenter, February, 1919.

“To the popular mind this sensational advance conveys the impression of a single invention but in reality it is an art, the successful practice of which involves the employment of a great many discoveries and improvements. I viewed it as such when I undertook to solve wireless problems and it is due to this fact that my insight into its underlying principles was clear from their very inception.

“In the course of development of my induction motors it became desirable to operate them at high speeds and for this purpose I constructed alternators of relatively high frequencies. The striking behavior of the currents soon captivated my attention and in 1889 I started a systematic investigation of their properties and the possibilities of practical application. The first gratifying result of my efforts in this direction was the transmission of electrical energy through one wire without return, of which I gave demonstrations in my lectures and addresses before several scientific bodies here and abroad in 1891 and 1892. During that period, while working with my oscillation transformers and dynamos of frequencies up to 200,000 cycles per second, the idea gradually took hold of me that the earth might be used in place of the wire, thus dispensing with artificial conductors altogether. The immensity of the globe seemed an unsurmountable obstacle but after a prolonged study of the subject I became satisfied that the undertaking was rational, and in my lectures before the Franklin Institute and National Electric Light Association early in 1893 I gave the outline of the system I had conceived. In the latter part of that year, at the Chicago World’s Fair, I had the good fortune of meeting Prof. Helmholtz to whom I explained my plan, illustrating it with experiments. On that occasion I asked the celebrated physicist for an expression of opinion on the feasibility of the scheme. He stated unhesitatingly that it was practicable, provided I could perfect apparatus capable of putting it into effect but this, he anticipated, would be extremely difficult to accomplish.

Figs. 5 & 6. — A Section of the Earth and Its Atmospheric Envelope Drawn to Scale. It is Obvious That the Hertzian Rays Cannot Traverse So Thin a Crack Between Two Conducting Surfaces For Any Considerable Distance. Without Being Absorbed, Says Dr. Tesla, in Discussing the Ether Space Wave Theory.

"I resumed the work very much encouraged and from that date to 1896 advanced slowly but steadily, making a number of improvements the chief of which was my system of concatenated tuned circuits and method of regulation, now universally adopted. In the summer of 1897 Lord Kelvin happened to pass through New York and honored me by a visit to my laboratory where I entertained him with demonstrations in support of my wireless theory. He was fairly carried away with what he saw but, nevertheless, condemned my project in emphatic terms, qualifying it as something impossible, “an illusion and a snare.” I had expected his approval and was pained and surprised. But the next day he returned and gave me a better opportunity for explanation of the advances I had made and of the true principles underlying the system I had evolved. Suddenly he remarked with evident astonishment: “Then you are not making use of Hertz waves?” “Certainly not,” I replied, “these are radiations. No energy could be economically transmitted to a distance by any such agency. In my system the process is one of true conduction which, theoretically, can be effected at the greatest distance without appreciable loss.” I can never forget the magic change that came over the illustrious philosopher the moment he freed himself from that erroneous impression. The skeptic who would not believe was suddenly transformed into the warmest of supporters. He parted from me not only thoroughly convinced of the scientific soundness of the idea but strongly exprest his confidence in its success. In my exposition to him I resorted to the following mechanical analogues of my own and the Hertz wave system.

"Imagine the earth to be a bag of rubber filled with water, a small quantity of which is periodically forced in and out of the same by means of a reciprocating pump, as illustrated. If the strokes of the latter are effected in intervals of more than one hour and forty-eight minutes, sufficient for the transmission of the impulse through the whole mass, the entire bag will expand and contract and corresponding movements will be imparted to pressure gauges or movable pistons with the same intensity, irrespective of distance. By working the pump faster, shorter waves will be produced which, on reaching the opposite end of the bag, may be reflected and give rise to stationary nodes and loops, but in any case, the fluid being incompressible, its inclosure perfectly elastic, and the frequency of oscillations not very high, the energy will be economically transmitted and very little power consumed so long as no work is done in the receivers. This is a crude but correct representation of my wireless system in which, however, I resort to various refinements. Thus, for instance, the pump is made part of a resonant system of great inertia, enormously magnifying the force of the imprest impulses. The receiving devices are similarly conditioned and in this manner the amount of energy collected in them vastly increased.

Fig. 7. — The Theory Has Been Seriously Advanced and Taught that the Radio Ether Wave Oscillations Pass Around the Earth by Successive Reflections, as Here Shown. The Efficiency of Such a Reflector Cannot be more than 25 Per Cent; the Amount of Energy Recoverable is a 12,000-mile Transmission being but One Hundred and Fifteen Billionth Part of One Watt, with 1.000 Kilowatts at the Transmitter.

"The Hertz wave system is in many respects the very opposite of this. To explain it by analogy, the piston of the pump is assumed to vibrate to and fro at a terrific rate and the orifice thru which the fluid passes in and out of the cylinder is reduced to a small hole. There is scarcely any movement of the fluid and almost the whole work performed results in the production of radiant heat, of which an infinitesimal part is recovered in a remote locality. However incredible, it is true that the minds of some of the ablest experts have been from the beginning, and still are, obsest by this monstrous idea, and so it comes that the true wireless art, to which I laid the foundation in 1893, has been retarded in its development for twenty years. This is the reason why the “statics” have proved unconquerable, why the wireless shares are of little value and why the Government has been compelled to interfere.

"We are living on a planet of well-nigh inconceivable dimensions, surrounded by a layer of insulating air above which is a rarefied and conducting atmosphere (Fig. 5). This is providential, for if all the air were conducting the transmission of electrical energy thru the natural media would be impossible. My early experiments have shown that currents of high frequency and great tension readily pass thru an atmosphere but moderately rarefied, so that the insulating stratum is reduced to a small thickness as will be evident by inspection of Fig. 6, in which a part of the earth and its gaseous envelope is shown to scale. If the radius of the sphere is 12½”, then the non-conducting layer is only 1/64″ thick and it will be obvious that the Hertzian rays cannot traverse so thin a crack between two conducting surfaces for any considerable distance, without being absorbed. The theory has been seriously advanced that these radiations pass around the globe by successive reflections, but to show the absurdity of this suggestion reference is made to Fig. 7 in which this process is diagrammatically indicated. Assuming that there is no refraction, the rays, as shown on the right, would travel along the sides of a polygon drawn around the solid, and inscribed into the conducting gaseous boundary in which case the length of the side would be about 400 miles. As one-half the circumference of the earth is approximately 12,000 miles long there will be, roughly, thirty deviations. The efficiency of such a reflector cannot be more than 25 per cent, so that if none of the energy of the transmitter were lost in other ways, the part recovered would be measured by the fraction (¼)30. Let the transmitter radiate Hertz waves at the rate of 1,000 kilowatts. Then about one hundred and fifteen billionth part of one watt is all that would be collected in a perfect receiver. In truth, the reflections would be much more numerous as shown on the left of the figure, and owing to this and other reasons, on which it is unnecessary to dwell, the amount recovered would be a vanishing quantity.

Fig. 8. — This Diagram Illustrates How, During a Solar Eclipse, the Moon’s Shadow Passes Over the Earth With Changing Velocity, and Should Be Studied In Connection With Fig. 9. The Shadow Moves Downward With Infinite Velocity at First. Then With Its True Velocity Thru Space, and Finally With Infinite Velocity Again.

"Consider now the process taking place in the transmission by the instrumentalities and methods of my invention. For this purpose attention is called to Fig. 8, which gives an idea of the mode of propagation of the current waves and is largely self-explanatory. The drawing represents a solar eclipse with the shadow of the moon just touching the surface of the earth at a point where the transmitter is located. As the shadow moves downward it will spread over the earth’s surface, first with infinite and then gradually diminishing velocity until at a distance of about 6,000 miles it will attain its true speed in space. From there on it will proceed with increasing velocity, reaching infinite value at the opposite point of the globe. It hardly need be stated that this is merely an illustration and not an accurate representation in the astronomical sense.

Fig. 9. — Theory.

"The exact law will be readily understood by reference to Fig. 9, in which a transmitting circuit is shown connected to earth and to an antenna. The transmitter being in action, two effects are produced: Hertz waves pass through the air, and a current traverses the earth. The former propagate with the speed of light and their energy is unrecoverable in the circuit. The latter proceeds with the speed varying as the cosecant of the angle which a radius drawn from any point under consideration forms with the axis of symmetry of the waves. At the origin the speed is infinite but gradually diminishes until a quadrant is traversed, when the velocity is that of light. From there on it again increases, becoming infinite at the antipole. Theoretically the energy of this current is recoverable in its entirety, in properly attuned receivers.

Fig. 10. — Tesla’s World-Wide Wireless Transmission of Electrical Signals, As Well As Light and Power, Is Here Illustrated in Theory, Analogy and Realization. Tesla’s Experiments With 100 Foot Discharges At Potentials of Millions of Volts Have Demonstrated That the Hertz Warn Are Infinitesimal In Effect and Unrecoverable: the Recoverable Ground Waves of Tesla Fly "Through the Earth”. Radio Engineers Are Gradually Beginning to See the Light and That the Laws of Propagation Laid Down by Tesla Over a Quarter of a Century Ago Form the Real and True Basis of All Wireless Transmission To-Day.

“Some experts, whom I have credited with better knowledge, have for years contended that my proposals to transmit power without wires are sheer nonsense but I note that they are growing more cautious every day. The latest objection to my system is found in the cheapness of gasoline. These men labor under the impression that the energy flows in all directions and that, therefore, only a minute amount can be recovered in any individual receiver. But this is far from being so. The power is conveyed in only one direction, from the transmitter to the receiver, and none of it is lost elsewhere. It is perfectly practicable to recover at any point of the globe energy enough for driving an airplane, or a pleasure boat or for lighting a dwelling. I am especially sanguine in regard to the lighting of isolated places and believe that a more economical and convenient method can hardly be devised. The future will show whether my foresight is as accurate now as it has proved heretofore.”

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drnikolatesla:

👽8 Quotes Nikola Tesla Had On Extraterrestrial Life👽

1. “I have observed electrical actions, which have appeared inexplicable. Faint and uncertain though they were, they have given me a deep conviction and foreknowledge, that ere long all human beings on this globe, as one, will turn their eyes to the firmament above, with feelings of love and reverence, thrilled by the glad news: “Brethren! We have a message from another world, unknown and remote. It reads: one… two… three…”–NT (Letter to the American Red Cross, New York City. Christmas 1900.)

2. “As I think over it now it seems to me that only men absolutely stricken with blindness, insensible to the greatness of nature, can hold that this planet is the only one inhabited by intelligent beings.” –NT (“Believes We Can Communicate With The Far-Off Planet Mars.” Philadelphia Inquirer, January 4, 1901.)

3. “Man on earth is not the only being in God’s great system of worlds that is in possession of a mind.” –NT (“Tesla Has Message From The Stars.” Western Electrician, January 12, 1901.)

4. “With a billion horsepower drawn from Niagara I am going to signal Mars, and my message will reach not only that ruddy planet but one hundred times further, even to Neptune, which is so distant that our sun looks a little bigger than a star… Whether we can get an answer or not depends on who is there. More than likely the first answer for my neighbor will be: “Well–well–at last. We have been calling you the last ten thousand years.” –NT (“Only A Matter Of Patience Now,” Says Tesla.“ New York American, March 11, 1906.)

5. “The idea that other planets are inhabited by intelligent beings might be traced to the very beginnings of civilization. This, in itself, would have little significance, for many of the ancient beliefs had their origin in ignorance, fear or other motives — good or evil, and were nothing more than products of untrained or tortured imagination. But when a conception lives through ages in the minds, growing stronger and stronger with increasing knowledge and intellectual development, it may be safely concluded that there is a solid truth underlying the instinctive perception. The individual is short lived and erring; man, relatively speaking, is imperishable and infallible. Even the positive evidences of the sense and the conclusions of science must be hesitatingly accepted when they are directed against the testimony of the entire body of humanity and the experience of centuries.” –NT (“Signals To Mars Based On Hope Of Life On Planet.” New York Herald, October 12, 1919.)

6. “Granted a planetary system, it is absolutely inevitable that in the course of eons such organized beings as we are will evolve. The cooling of the hot masses results in a precipitation of water, and under the influence of the sun’s rays heliotropic action takes place and life is started. Through chemical and other agents and continuous adjustment complex mechanisms come into being, and these ultimately develop into structures of marvelous complexity with capacities of response to the faintest stimulae from the environment.” –NT (“After Death — WHAT?” Lima News, Lima, Ohio, March 14, 1926.)

7. “As I examine the possibilities of achievement and the benefits which the human race may derive from them I think that nothing can be more important than interplanetary communication. It will certainly come some day, and the certitude that there are other human beings in the universe, working, suffering, struggling, like ourselves, will produce a magic effect on mankind and will form the foundation of a universal brotherhood that will last as long as humanity itself. –NT (“Tesla, Sure Life Exists on Other Planets, Works On at 76 to Establish His Belief.” New York World Telegram, July 9th, 1932.)

8. “It is mathematically certain that other planets are inhabited. Every other planet has to pass through practically the same phase of existence the earth did, and life is started on them, during that favorable phase, by rays of some sun. It develops in the presence of moisture and heat and light in much the same manner as life does on the earth. We know that light propagates in straight lines, and consequently our perceptions of the forms through the images projected on the retina must be true. Therefore, it should not be hard to establish intelligent exchange of ideas between two planets. It is conceivable that there is civilization on other planets far ahead of ours. If communication were established by the earth, the consequences to human beings would be incalculable.“ –NT (“Tesla, Sure Life Exists on Other Planets, Works On at 76 to Establish His Belief.” New York World Telegram, July 9th, 1932.)

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drnikolatesla:

Why Was Nikola Tesla One Of Albert Einstein’s Biggest Critics?

We know that Albert Einstein’s Theory​ of Special Relativity says that the kinetic energy (e) of a body equals its mass (m) times the speed of light (c²), or (e=mc²). The equation expresses a theory that mass and energy are the same physical entity and can be changed into each other. It also asserts that speeds greater than 186,300 miles per second (speed of light) are impossible in the universe. It is literally one of the principal tenets of the theory; that the mass of a body increases with its speed, and would become infinite at the velocity of light. Hence, a greater velocity is impossible.

Nikola Tesla positively denied Einstein’s theory, not just because he rejected the idea of matter being convertible into energy, and energy into matter, or even the existence of space-time, but because he himself had measured speeds traveling faster than light in many experiments, observations and measurements, both qualitative and quantitative throughout his lifetime of research.

As far back as 1896, Tesla conducted experiments on cosmic rays where he measured cosmic ray velocities from the star Antares, which he measured to be fifty times greater than the speed of light, literally demolishing one of the basic pillars of the structure of relativity. Also, in 1899, he conducted and recorded numerous experiments at Colorado Springs where he sent electrical currents from his transmitter around earth and back to his receiver traveling at a mean velocity of 292,815 miles per second. After these experiments, On April of 1900 he published a patent on this transmitter titled the “Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Medium,” which was just a play thing compared to his Magnifying Transmitter patented in 1914. Also, in June of 1900, he published an article in the Century Magazine titled “The Problem of Increasing Human Energy,” where he outlined his experiments in Colorado Springs and his plans for the future.

Whether you believe Tesla witnessed and measured such speeds or not, his statements should still be given due consideration. After all, both Tesla and Einstein were genius minds, but Einstein was merely a theoretical physicist who relied on abstract mathematics and other scientist’s work to prove his theories, while Tesla followed the scientific method like a religion and was solely dependent on actual experimentation to prove his. Nikola Tesla’s work and theories have yet to be proven wrong to this day and are beginning to resurface as present science and technology improves.

Anyways… Here are 6 quotes from Tesla critiquing Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Enjoy (((:

*Nikola Tesla reading James Clark Maxwell’s book, “The Scientific Papers,” in front of the spiral coil of his high-frequency transformer at East Houston St. 46, New York*

1. “What is ‘thought’ in relativity, for example, is not science, but some kind of metaphysics based on abstract mathematical principles and conceptions which will be forever incomprehensible to beings like ourselves whose whole knowledge is derived from a three-dimensional world.”  –NT  (“Great Scientific Discovery Impends.” Sunday Star. Washington D.C., May 17, 1931.)

2. We read a great deal about matter being changed into force and force being changed into matter by the cosmic rays. This is absurd. It is the same as saying that the body can be changed into the mind, and the mind into the body. We know that the mind is a functioning of the body, and in the same manner force is a function of matter. Without the body there can be no mind, without matter there can be no force. Einstein has for years developed formulas explaining the mechanism of the cosmos. In doing this he overlooked an important factor, namely the fact that some of the heavenly bodies are increasing in distance from the sun. This is the same as writing a business letter and forgetting the subject you wish to write about. In order to explain this phenomenon Einstein has invented the quantity “lambda.” My theory of gravitation explains this phenomenon perfectly.” –NT  (Tesla’s statement relating to force and matter, to Einstein’s theories, and Tesla’s own theory of gravitation. Courtesy of Nikola Tesla Papers. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University. April 15, 1932.)

3. “I hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved, is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.” –NT (“Pioneer Radio Engineer Gives Views On Power.” New York Herald Tribune, September 11, 1932.)

4. “[The Theory of Relativity] is a mass of errors and deceptive ideas violently opposed to the teachings of great men of science of the past and even to common sense. The theory wraps all these errors and fallacies and clothes them in magnificent mathematical garb which fascinates, dazzles and makes people blind to the underlying errors. The theory is like a beggar clothed in purple whom ignorant people take for a king. Its exponents are very brilliant men, but they are metaphysicists rather than scientists. Not a single one of the relativity propositions has been proved.” –NT(“Tesla, 79, Promises to Transmit Force.” New York Times, July 11, 1935.)

5. “The kinetic and potential energy of a body is the result of motion and determined by the product of its mass and the square of velocity. Let the mass be reduced, the energy is diminished in the same proportion. If it be reduced to zero the energy is likewise zero for any finite velocity. In other words, it is absolutely impossible to convert mass into energy. It would be different if there were forces in nature capable of imparting to a mass infinite velocity. Then the product of zero mass with the square of infinite velocity would represent infinite energy. But we know that there are no such forces and the idea that mass is convertible into energy is rank nonsense…

“According to the relativists, space has a tendency to curvature owing to an inherent property or presence of celestial bodies. Granting a semblance of reality to this fantastic idea, it is still self-contradictory. Every action is accompanied by an equivalent reaction and the effects of the latter are directly opposite to those of the former. Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curvature of the same, it appears to my simple mind that the curved spaces must react on the bodies and, producing the opposite effects, straighten out the curves. Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible. But even if it existed it would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a field of force can account for them and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion. So are also all attempts to explain the workings of the universe without recognizing the existence of the ether and the indispensable function it plays in the phenomena.” –NT (“Dynamic Theory Of Gravity.” July 10, 1937. Prior to interviews with the press on his 81st birthday observance.)

6. “The relativity theory, by the way, is much older than its present proponents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman Boskovic, the great philosopher, who, not withstanding other and multifold obligations, wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects. Boskovic dealt with relativity, including the so-called time-space continuum.” NT

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Tesla>Einstein

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“The real cause for the fall of nations is the inability of mankind to solve the SOCIAL, MORAL and SPIRITUAL problems. So long as the struggle for existence is such that only the fittest can survive, there is a healthy development under the sway of individualism. When reaction sets in the individual is eliminated, original effort and initiative suppressed and the creative faculties impaired, the race gradually lapses into savagery and perishes. A similar end threatens our present civilization.”

-Nikola Tesla

(To a journalist of the New York Times, 1920.)

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“Throughout space all matter is vibrating, and all rates of vibration are represented, from the lowest musical note to the highest pitch of the chemical rays, hence an atom, or complex of atoms, no matter what its period, must find a vibration with which it is in resonance…”

"There is no death of matter, for throughout the infinite universe, all has to move, to vibrate, that is, to live.”

–Nikola Tesla

“On Light And Other High Frequency Phenomena.” Lecture delivered before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, February 1893, and before the National Electric Light Association, St. Louis, March 1893.

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“There is no way of acquiring knowledge except through the eye. What is the foundation of all philosophical systems of ancient and modern times, in fact, of all the philosophy of men? I am I think; I think, therefore I am. But how could I think and how would I know that I exist, if I had not the eye? For knowledge involves consciousness; consciousness involves ideas, conceptions; conceptions involve pictures or images, and images the sense of vision, and therefore the organ of sight. But how about blind men, will be asked? Yes, a blind man may depict in magnificent poems, forms and scenes from real life, from a world he physically does not see. A blind man may touch the keys of an instrument with unerring precision, may model the fastest boat, may discover and invent, calculate and construct, may do still greater wonders, but all the blind men who have done such thinks have descended from those who had seeing eyes. Nature may reach the same result in many ways. Like a wave in the physical world, in the infinite ocean of the medium which pervades all, so in the world of organism, in life, an impulse started proceeds onward, at times, may be, with the speed of light, at times, again, so slowly that for ages and ages it seems to stay; passing through processes of a complexity inconceivable to men, but in all its forms, in all its stages, its energy ever and ever integrally present. A single ray of light from a distant star falling upon the eye of a tyrant in by-gone times, may have altered the course of his life, may have changed the destiny of nations, may have transformed the surface of the globe. So intricate, so inconceivably complex are the processes in Nature. In no way can we get such an overwhelming idea of the grandeur of Nature, as when we consider, that in accordance with the law of the conservation of energy, throughout the infinite, the forces are in a perfect balance, and hence the energy of a single thought may determine the motion of a Universe. It is not necessary that every individual, not even that every generation or many generations, should have the physical instrument of sight, in order to be able to form images and to think, that is, form ideas or conceptions; but sometime or other, during the process of evolution, the eye certainly must have existed, else thought, as we understand it, would be impossible; else conceptions, like spirit, intellect, mind, call it as you may, could not exist. It is conceivable, that in some other world, in some other beings, the eye is replaced by a different organ, equally or more perfect, but these beings cannot be men.”

–Nikola Tesla

“On Light And Other High Frequency Phenomena.” Lecture delivered before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, February 1893, and before the National Electric Light Association, St. Louis, March 1893.

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“It should be borne in mind that electrical energy obtained by harnessing a waterfall is probably fifty times more effective than fuel energy. Since this is the most perfect way of rendering the sun’s energy available, the direction of the future material development of man is clearly indicated. He will live on “white coal.” Like a babe to the mother’s breast will he cling to his waterfall. “Give us our daily waterfall,“ will be the prayer of the coming generations. Deus futurus est deus aquae deiectus!”

–Nikola Tesla

“The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires As a Means for Furthering Peace.“ Electrical World and Engineer, January 7, 1905

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darktiger337:

drnikolatesla:

“NIKOLA TESLA TELLS OF NEW RADIO THEORIES.”

An interview with Nikola Tesla

New York Herald Tribune, September 22, 1929.

Does Not Believe in Hertz Waves and Heaviside Layer, Interview Discloses

The model of a “Tesla Coil” which will be featured in the historic exhibit of the radio show reawakens interest in its inventor.

It is not generally appreciated that this curious apparatus, often associated with pretty or spectacular demonstrations of high voltage electricity, is really a fundamental part of modern radio. For all the tuning apparatus and circuits in every transmitting and receiving set are simply variations of Tesla coils and Tesla coil circuits.

It was for this invention, and other inventions and principles concerned with tuning, heterodyning, and the generation of continuous waves, which were made at least several years before the very first experiments of Marconi, that many of our most reputable engineers have conceded to Nikola Tesla the title of “Father of Radio”.

Mr. Tesla, still actively working, was interviewed last week to get his ideas regarding the prospects of the radio of 1930, and beyond. As a prophet, however, he balked. He had repeated time and again his visions for the future. As far back as 1900, he had contemplated a world-wireless system which included broadcasting, picture transmission, international time service, and in addition television and the distribution of electrical power. Part of this early prophecy has been realized – what remained, still stood as his prediction.

Disputes Hertz Waves

What, then, about power transmission by radio? Laurence M. Cockaday, the technical editor of this radio section, had expressed the opinion several weeks ago that, with present apparatus at least, it was hardly feasible. Mr. Tesla agreed to discuss the point at length.  As a result, he made public for the first time one of the most extraordinary conclusions – that Hertz waves do not exist! If his theory is true, there may be found in it more adequate explanations of “dead spots”, fading, reflection and a dozen other problems that have always puzzled the profession.

The inventor began by referring to Cockaday’s article:

“I have read the article, and I quite agree with the opinion expressed – that wireless power transmission is impractical with present apparatus. This conclusion will be naturally reached by any one who recognizes the nature of the agent by which the impulses are transmitted in present wireless practice.

“When Dr. Heinrich Hertz undertook his experiments from 1887 to 1889 his object was to demonstrate a theory postulating a medium filling all space, called the ether, which was structureless, of inconceivable tenuity and yet solid and possessed of rigidity incomparably greater than that of the hardest steel. He obtained certain results and the whole world acclaimed them as an experimental verification of that cherished theory. But in reality what he observed tended to prove just its fallacy.

“I had maintained for many years before that such a medium as supposed could not exist, and that we must rather accept the view that all space is filled with a gaseous substance. On repeating the Hertz experiments with much improved and very powerful apparatus, I satisfied myself that what he had observed was nothing else but effects of longitudinal waves in a gaseous medium, that is to say, waves, propagated by alternate compression and expansion. He had observed waves in the ether much of the nature of sound waves in the air.

“Up to 1896, however, I did not succeed in obtaining a positive experimental proof of the existence of such a medium. But in that year I brought out a new form of vacuum tube capable of being charged to any desired potential, and operated it with effective pressures of about 4,000,000 volts. I produced cathodic and other rays of transcending intensity. The effects, according to my view, were due to minute particles of matter carrying enormous electrical charges, which, for want of a better name, I designated as matter not further decomposable. Subsequently those particles were called electrons.

"One of the first striking observations made with my tubes was that a purplish glow for several feet around the end of the tube was formed, and I readily ascertained that it was due to the escape of the charges of the particles as soon as they passed out into the air; for it was only in a nearly perfect vacuum that these charges could be confined to them. The coronal discharge proved that there must be a medium besides air in the space, composed of particles immeasurably smaller than those of air, as otherwise such a discharge would not be possible. On further investigation I found that this gas was so light that a volume equal to that of the earth would weigh only about one-twentieth of a pound.

"The velocity of any sound wave depends on a certain ratio between elasticity and density, and for this ether or universal gas the ratio is 800,000,000,000 times greater than for air. This means that the velocity of the sound waves propagated through the ether is about 300,000 times greater than that of the sound waves in air, which travel at approximately 1,085 feet a second. Consequently the speed in ether is 900,000 x 1,085 feet, or 186,000 miles, and that is the speed of light.

"As the waves of this kind are all the more penetrative the shorter they are, I have for years urged the wireless experts to use such waves in order to get good results, but it took a long time before they settled upon this practice.

"Although the world is still skeptical as to the feasibility of my undertaking, I note that some advanced experts, at least, share my views, and I hope that before long wireless power transmission will be as common as transmission by wires.”

According to Mr. Tesla, the present broadcasting station does not propagate Hertzian waves, as has always been supposed, but acts more like an “ether whistle” – transmitting waves through the ether similar to the waves transmitted by an ordinary whistle through the air. He also expressed his disbelief in the Heaviside layer, and claimed that the reflection of waves back toward the earth was due to the change of medium encountered at the vacuous boundary of the atmosphere.

At Colorado Springs, about thirty years ago, this scientist had a Tesla coil seventy-five feet in diameter which produced voltages above 12,000,000, and sparks over 100 feet long. Electrical flashes were created which were the nearest approach to lightning that man has ever made. During his experiments there, of over a year, Tesla claims that he transmitted a considerable amount of electrical current to the other side of the earth. It was upon these, and later experiments that he bases his present prediction.

If only he wasn’t blackballed by Edison… 😢

And the U.S. Government.

Regular

“The secret to success is hard work. To be successful in this world one must perform the hardest kind of work. You must peg away night and day, and not stop a minute. There is no royal road. This has been the plan I have followed for years.

“Why! I am even blamed for being lazy by some people, because I do not perfect all my inventions; although I work from sixteen to twenty hours out of the twenty-four.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Our Modern Mr. Franklin – Mr. Tesla.” Success, November 4, 1898.