Category: quantum mechanics

drnikolatesla: Nikola Tesla Describing Quantum…

drnikolatesla:

Nikola Tesla Describing Quantum Entanglement In 1891.

“Nature has stored up in the universe infinite energy. The eternal recipient and transmitter of this infinite energy is the ether. The recognition of the existence of ether, and of the functions it performs, is one of the most important results of modern scientific research. The mere abandoning of the idea of action at a distance, the assumption of a medium pervading all space and connecting all gross matter, has freed the minds of thinkers of an ever present doubt, and, by opening a new horizon—new and unforeseen possibilities—has given fresh interest to phenomena with which we are familiar of old. It has been a great step towards the understanding of the forces of nature and their multifold manifestations to our senses. It has been for the enlightened student of physics what the understanding of the mechanism of the firearm or of the steam engine is for the barbarian.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Experiments With Alternate Currents Of Very High Frequency And Their Application To Methods Of Artificial Illumination.” Lecture delivered before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Columbia College, N.Y., May 20, 1891.

🐐

Regular

drnikolatesla:

🔥Nikola Tesla Roasts the Pop Science World

ASKED to select his choice of the greatest modern and future wonders, the electrical wizard refused to accept the popular notion of what is wonderful. His reply led him into onslaught on the scientists who have abandoned “cause and effect” and who take the position that there are accidents in nature and that anything might happen.

“To the popular mind, any manifestation resulting from any cause will appear wonderful if there is no perceptible connection between cause and effect. For instance, through the means of wireless telephone speech is carried to opposite points of the globe. To the vast majority this must appear miraculous. To the expert who is familiar with the apparatus and sees it in his mind’s eye the result is obvious. It is exactly as though visible means existed to which the impetus is transmitted.

“As I revolve in my mind the thoughts in answer to your question I find the most wonderful thing is the utter aberration of the scientific mind during the last twenty five years. In that time the relativity theory [(Albert Einstein)], the electron theory [(J. J. Thomson)], the quantum theory [(Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Arthur Compton, Paul Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli)], the theory of radioactivity [Marie Curie] and others have been worked out and developed to an amazing degree. And yet probably not less than 90 per cent of what is thought today to be demonstrable scientific truth is nothing but unrealizable dreams.

“What is ‘thought’ in relativity, for example, is not science, but some kind of metaphysics based on abstract mathematical principles and conceptions which will be forever incomprehensible to beings like ourselves whose whole knowledge is derived from a three-dimensional world.

“The idea of the atom being formed of electrons and protons which go whirling round each other like a miniature sun and planets is an invention of the imagination, and has no relation to the real nature of matter.

“Virtually all progress has been achieved by physicists, discoverers and inventors; in short, devotees of the science which [Isaac] Newton and his disciples have been and are propounding.

“Personally, it is only efforts in this direction which have claimed my energies. Similar remarks might be made with respect to other modern developments of thought. Take, for example, the electron theory. Perhaps no other has given rise to so many erroneous ideas and chimerical hopes. Everybody speaks of electrons as something entirely definite and real. Still, the fact is that nobody has isolated it and nobody has measured its charge. Nor does anybody know what it really is.

“In order to explain the observed phenomena, atomic structures have been imagined [(Quantum Mechanics)], none of which can possibly exist. But the worst illusion to which modern thought has led is the idea of ‘indeterminacy’ [(ex. Uncertainty Principle: W. Heisenberg, E. Schrödinger)]. To make this clear, I may remark that heretofore we have in positive science assumed that every effect is the result of a preceding cause.

“As far as I am concerned, I can say that after years of concentrated thought and investigation there is no truth in nature of which I would be more fully convinced. But the new theories of ‘indeterminacy’ state this is not true, that an effect cannot be predicted in advance.

“If two planets collide at certain time and certain place, this is to the student of positive science an inevitable result of preceding interactions between the bodies; and if our knowledge would be adequate, we would be able to foretell the event accurately.

“But in the spirit of the new theories this would simply be an accident. ‘Indeterminacy’ introduces into the world of inert matter a principle which might virtually be compared with the universal illusion of free will.

“Of course, there is no such thing. In years of experimenting I have found that every thought I conceive, every act I perform, is the result of external impressions on my senses.

“It is only because the vast majority of human being are not observant sufficiently that they live in the illusion of perfect choice and freedom in their thoughts and actions. And if this holds true even in the most complex and involved manifestations of human life, it holds true with the same force in all the world of matter.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Great Scientific Discovery Impends.“ The Sunday Star, Washington D.C., May 17, 1931.

This is the final post in a collaborative seri…

This is the final post in a collaborative series with FYP on pilot-wave hydrodynamics. Previous posts: 1) Introduction; 2) Chladni patterns; 3) Faraday instability; 4) Walking droplets; 5) Droplet lattices;

6) Quantum double-slit experiments; 7) Hydro single- and double-slit experiments; 8) Quantum tunneling; 9) Hydrodynamic tunneling; 10) de Broglie’s pilot-wave theor

Thanks for joining us this week as we explored nearly two centuries’ worth of scientific discoveries around vibration, fluid dynamics, and quantum mechanics. For those who’d like to learn more about these and related topics, we’ve compiled some helpful resources below.

Other Videos, Articles, and Resources by Topic

Chladni Patterns

Faraday Instability

Pilot-wave Hydrodynamics

Selected (Academic) Bibliography by Topic

Articles marked with an asterisk (*) are recommended for their approachability and/or broad overview of the subject.

Chladni Patterns

Faraday Instability

Pilot-wave Hydrodynamics

(Image credit: A. Labuda and J. Belina)

This post is part of a collaborative series wi…

This post is part of a collaborative series with FYP on pilot-wave hydrodynamics. Previous posts: 1) Introduction; 2) Chladni patterns; 3) Faraday instability; 4) Walking droplets; 5) Droplet lattices; 6) Quantum double-slit experiments; 7) Hydro single- and double-slit experiments; 8) Quantum tunneling

Quantum tunneling  is a strange subatomic behavior that was first described to explain how alpha particles escape a nucleus during radioactive decay. Classically, a particle trapped in a well can only escape if its energy is sufficiently high, but in quantum mechanics, even a particle with lower-than-necessary energy can occasionally “tunnel” out.

To test whether hydrodynamic walkers can tunnel, researchers built corrals. In the central region, the pool on which the walker moves is relatively deep. Over the walls, the pool is much shallower. In this shallow area, the wave from the droplet’s bouncing decays quickly, creating a partially reflective barrier. For most collisions, the walker reflects off the barrier. Other times, apparently at random, a collision results in the walker crossing the wall and tunneling out of its well.

Over many experiments, researchers were able to construct a probabilistic view of walker tunneling. In quantum mechanics, a particle’s likelihood of tunneling out of a well depends on the particle’s energy and the well’s thickness. The analogs for a walker are velocity and barrier thickness. The thicker the barrier, the harder it is for a walker to tunnel through. Conversely, a faster walker has a higher probability of tunneling through a barrier of a given thickness. As the authors themselves observe:

“Although our experiment is foreign to the quantum world, the similarity of the observed behaviors is intriguing.” #

As we wrap up our series tomorrow, we’ll consider some of those similarities more deeply.

(Image credits: A. Eddi et al., sources)

This post is part of a collaborative series wi…

This post is part of a collaborative series with FYP on pilot-wave hydrodynamics. Previous entries: 1) Introduction; 2) Chladni patterns; 3) Faraday instability; 4) Walking droplets; 5) Droplet lattices; 6) Quantum double-slit experiments

In quantum mechanics, the single and double-slit experiments are foundational. They demonstrate that light and elementary particles like electrons have wave-like and particle-like properties, both of which are necessary to explain the behaviors observed. Similarly, a hydrodynamic walker consists of both a particle and a wave, so, perhaps unsurprisingly, researchers tested them in both single-slit and double-slit experiments.

When a walker passes through a single-slit (top row), it’s deflected in a seemingly random direction due to its waves interacting with the slit. But if you watch enough walkers traverse the slit, you can put together a statistical representation of where the walker will get deflected. Compare that with the results for a series of photons passing through a slit one-at-a-time, and you’ll see a remarkable match-up.

If you test the walker instead with two slits, the droplet can only pass through one slit, but its accompanying wave passes through both (bottom row). Let enough walkers through the system one-by-one, and they, like their photonic cousins, build up interference fringes that match the quantum experiment. Diffraction and interference are only a couple of the walkers’ tricks, however. In the next posts, we’ll take a look at another analog to quantum behavior: tunneling.

(Image and research credits: Couder et al., source, selected papers 1, 2; images courtesy of E. Fort)

This post is a collaborative series with FYP o…

This post is a collaborative series with FYP on pilot-wave hydrodynamics. Previous entries: 1) Introduction; 2) Chladni patterns; 3) Faraday instability

If you place a small droplet atop a vibrating pool, it will happily bounce like a kid on a trampoline. On the surface, this seems quite counterintuitive: why doesn’t the droplet coalesce with the pool? The answer: there’s a thin layer of air trapped between the droplet and the pool. If that air were squeezed out, the droplet would coalesce. But it takes a finite amount of time to drain that air layer away, even with the weight of the droplet bearing down on it. Before that drainage can happen, the vibration of the pool sends the droplet aloft again, refreshing the air layer beneath it. The droplet falls, gets caught on its air cushion, and then sent bouncing again before the air can squeeze out. If nothing disturbs the droplet, it can bounce almost indefinitely.

image

Droplets don’t always bounce in place, though. When forced with the right frequency and acceleration, a bouncing droplet can transition to walking. In this state, the droplet falls and strikes the pool such that it interacts with the ripple from its previous bounce. That sends the droplet aloft again but with a horizontal velocity component in addition to its vertical one. In this state, the droplet can wander about its container in a way that depends on its history or “memory” in the form of waves from its previous bounces. And this is where things start to get a bit weird – as in quantum weirdness – because now our walker consists of both a particle (droplet) and wave (ripples). The similarities between quantum behaviors and the walking droplets, the collective behavior of which is commonly referred to as “pilot-wave hydrodynamics,” are rather remarkable. In the next couple posts, we’ll take a look at some important quantum mechanical experiments and their hydrodynamic counterparts.

(Image credit: D. Harris et al., source)  

Regular

🔥Nikola Tesla Roasts the Pop Science World

ASKED to select his choice of the greatest modern and future wonders, the electrical wizard refused to accept the popular notion of what is wonderful. His reply led him into onslaught on the scientists who have abandoned “cause and effect” and who take the position that there are accidents in nature and that anything might happen.

“To the popular mind, any manifestation resulting from any cause will appear wonderful if there is no perceptible connection between cause and effect. For instance, through the means of wireless telephone speech is carried to opposite points of the globe. To the vast majority this must appear miraculous. To the expert who is familiar with the apparatus and sees it in his mind’s eye the result is obvious. It is exactly as though visible means existed to which the impetus is transmitted.

“As I revolve in my mind the thoughts in answer to your question I find the most wonderful thing is the utter aberration of the scientific mind during the last twenty five years. In that time the relativity theory [Albert Einstein], the electron theory[J. J. Thomson], the quantum theory [Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Arthur Compton, Paul Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli], the theory of radioactivity [Marie Curie] and others have been worked out and developed to an amazing degree. And yet probably not less than 90 per cent of what is thought today to be demonstrable scientific truth is nothing but unrealizable dreams.

“What is ‘thought’ in relativity, for example, is not science, but some kind of metaphysics based on abstract mathematical principles and conceptions which will be forever incomprehensible to beings like ourselves whose whole knowledge is derived from a three-dimensional world.

“The idea of the atom being formed of electrons and protons which go whirling round each other like a miniature sun and planets is an invention of the imagination, and has no relation to the real nature of matter.

“Virtually all progress has been achieved by physicists, discoverers and inventors; in short, devotees of the science which Newton and his disciples have been and are propounding.

“Personally, it is only efforts in this direction which have claimed my energies. Similar remarks might be made with respect to other modern developments of thought. Take, for example, the electron theory. Perhaps no other has given rise to so many erroneous ideas and chimerical hopes. Everybody speaks of electrons as something entirely definite and real. Still, the fact is that nobody has isolated it and nobody has measured its charge. Nor does anybody know what it really is.

“In order to explain the observed phenomena, atomic structures have been imagined [Quantum Mechanics], none of which can possibly exist. But the worst illusion to which modern thought has led is the idea of ‘indeterminacy’ [ex. Uncertainty Principle: W. Heisenberg, E. Schrödinger]. To make this clear, I may remark that heretofore we have in positive science assumed that every effect is the result of a preceding cause.

“As far as I am concerned, I can say that after years of concentrated thought and investigation there is no truth in nature of which I would be more fully convinced. But the new theories of ‘indeterminacy’ state this is not true, that an effect cannot be predicted in advance.

“If two planets collide at certain time and certain place, this is to the student of positive science an inevitable result of preceding interactions between the bodies; and if our knowledge would be adequate, we would be able to foretell the event accurately.

“But in the spirit of the new theories this would simply be an accident. ‘Indeterminacy’ introduces into the world of inert matter a principle which might virtually be compared with the universal illusion of free will.

“Of course, there is no such thing. In years of experimenting I have found that every thought I conceive, every act I perform, is the result of external impressions on my senses.

"It is only because the vast majority of human being are not observant sufficiently that they live in the illusion of perfect choice and freedom in their thoughts and actions. And if this holds true even in the most complex and involved manifestations of human life, it holds true with the same force in all the world of matter.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Great Scientific Discovery Impends.“ The Sunday Star, Washington D.C., May 17, 1931.

drnikolatesla: The History of the Photoelectric Effect In…

drnikolatesla:

The History of the Photoelectric Effect

In 1905, Albert Einstein gained world fame for supposedly being the first to propose that light has a nature of both a wave and a particle. This theory lead to the development of “photons,” or photo-electrons, which describe light with a wave-particle duality. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theoretical physics and his explanation of the photoelectric effect. A theory that even today is still accepted as a certainty.

In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect, but it is a fact that Nikola Tesla was the first to explain the effect. Einstein was a very intelligent scientist, but he lacked wisdom. Unlike Einstein, Nikola Tesla wasn’t just a theoretical physicist who based all his theories off other scientists’ work (like James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz), but was an experimental physicist as well, who based all his theories off experimental research and data from which he himself conducted and recorded.

In 1896, with experiments with radiant energy and high-vacuum tubes, Nikola Tesla was the first to publicize that light had both particle-like and wave-like properties–predating Einstein and other quantum physicists by nine years. With his high-vacuum tubes, or cathode ray tubes, Tesla shot cathode rays at different metals noting the differences in reflection the streams made upon the metals. Initially, he noticed the streams, being shot at the metals like bullets, broke into smaller particles, and or, vibrations of extremely high frequencies (technically, this would be the first demonstration of breaking electrons into subatomic particles), but upon further investigation he proved that they were indeed just waves. This lead to his conclusion that light is merely a transverse, longitudinal disturbance in the ether, involving alternate compressions and rarefactions, or in his words, “light can be nothing else than a sound wave in the ether.” Tesla would go on to file a patent based off these experiments titled, “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy,” published in 1901.

Tesla’s conclusions would obviously get ignored by main stream science, but it seems that today’s technology, which seemingly works off Albert Einstein’s theories, are in reality, working off Tesla’s.

Ahead of his time!

drnikolatesla: The History of the Photoelectric Effect In…

drnikolatesla:

The History of the Photoelectric Effect

In 1905, Albert Einstein gained world fame for supposedly being the first to propose that light has a nature of both a wave and a particle. This theory lead to the development of “photons,” or photo-electrons, which describe light with a wave-particle duality. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theoretical physics and his explanation of the photoelectric effect. A theory that even today is still accepted as a certainty.

In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect, but it is a fact that Nikola Tesla was the first to explain the effect. Einstein was a very intelligent scientist, but he lacked wisdom. Unlike Einstein, Nikola Tesla wasn’t just a theoretical physicist who based all his theories off other scientists’ work (like James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz), but was an experimental physicist as well, who based all his theories off experimental research and data from which he himself conducted and recorded.

In 1896, with experiments with radiant energy and high-vacuum tubes, Nikola Tesla was the first to publicize that light had both particle-like and wave-like properties–predating Einstein and other quantum physicists by nine years. With his high-vacuum tubes, or cathode ray tubes, Tesla shot cathode rays at different metals noting the differences in reflection the streams made upon the metals. Initially, he noticed the streams, being shot at the metals like bullets, broke into smaller particles, and or, waves of extremely high frequencies (technically, this would be the first demonstration of breaking electrons into subatomic particles), but upon further investigation he proved that they were indeed just waves. This lead to his conclusion that light is merely a longitudinal disturbance in the ether, involving alternate compressions and rarefactions, or in his words, “light can be nothing else than a sound wave in the ether.” Tesla would go on to file a patent based off these experiments titled, “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy,” published in 1901.

Tesla’s conclusions would obviously get ignored by main stream science, but it seems that today’s technology, which seemingly works off Albert Einstein’s theories, are in reality, working off Tesla’s.

Ahead of his time!

The History of the Photoelectric Effect In 1905, Albert…

The History of the Photoelectric Effect

In 1905, Albert Einstein gained world fame for supposedly being the first to propose that light has a nature of both a wave and a particle. This theory lead to the development of “photons,” or photo-electrons, which describe light with a wave-particle duality. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theoretical theories and his explanation of the photoelectric effect. A theory that even today is still accepts as a certainty.

In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect, but it is a fact that Nikola Tesla was the first to explain the effect. Einstein was a very intelligent scientist, but he lacked wisdom. Unlike Einstein, Nikola Tesla wasn’t just a theoretical physicist who based all his theories off other scientists’ work (like James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz), but was an experimental physicist as well who based all his theories off experimental research and data from which he himself conducted and recorded.

In 1896, with experiments with radiant energy and high-vacuum tubes, Nikola Tesla was the first to publicize that light had both particle-like and wave-like properties–predating Einstein and other quantum physicists by nine years. With his high-vacuum tubes, or cathode ray tubes, Tesla shot cathode rays at different metals noting the differences in reflection the streams made upon the metals. Initially, he noticed the streams, being shot at the metals like bullets, broke into smaller particles, and or, waves of extremely high frequencies (technically, this would be the first demonstration of breaking electrons into subatomic particles), but upon further investigation he proved that they were indeed just waves. This lead to his conclusion that light is merely a longitudinal disturbance in the ether, involving alternate compressions and rarefactions, or in his words, “light can be nothing else than a sound wave in the ether.” Tesla would go on to file a patent based off these experiments titled, “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy,” published in 1901.

Tesla’s conclusions would obviously get ignored by main stream science, but it seems that today’s technology, which seemingly works off Albert Einstein’s theories, are in reality, working off Tesla’s.