Category: nikola tesla

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poopdoggydogg:

drnikolatesla:

“MAN’S GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT.”

By Nikola Tesla

San Antonio Sunday Light. San Antonio, Texas, July 20, 1930.

“WHEN a child is born its sense-organs are brought in contact with the outer world.

“The waves of sound, heat and light beat upon its feeble body, its sensitive nerve-fibres quiver, the muscles contract and relax in obedience: a gasp, a breath, and in this act a marvelous little engine, of inconceivable delicacy and complexity of construction, unlike any on earth, is hitched to the wheel-work of the Universe.

“The little engine labors and grows, performs more and more involved operations, becomes sensitive to ever subtler influences and now there manifests itself in the fully developed being–Man–a desire mysterious, inscrutable and irresistible: to imitate nature, to create, to work himself the wonders he perceives.

"Inspired to this task he searches, discovers and invents, designs and constructs, and enriches with monuments of beauty, grandeur and awe, the star of his birth.

"He descends into the bowels of the globe to bring forth its hidden treasures and to unlock its immense imprisoned energies for his use.

"He invades the dark depths of the ocean and the azure regions of the sky.

"He peers into the innermost nooks and recesses of molecular structure and lays bare to his gaze worlds infinitely remote. He subdues and puts to his service the fierce, devastating spark of Prometheus, the titanic forces of the waterfall, the wind and the tide.

"He tames the thundering bolt of Jove and annihilates time and space. He makes the great Sun itself his obedient toiling slave.

"Such is his power and might that the heavens reverberate and the whole earth trembles by the mere sound of his voice.

"What has the future in store for this strange being, born of a breath, of perishable tissue, yet immortal, with his powers fearful and divine? What magic will be wrought by him in the end? What is to be his greatest deed, his crowning achievement?

"Long ago he recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space–the Akasa or luminiferous ether–which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena.

"The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance.

"Can Man control this grandest, most awe-inspiring of all processes in nature? Can he harness her inexhaustible energies to perform all their functions at his bidding, more still–can he so refine his means of control as to put them in operation simply by the force of his will?

"If he could do this he would have powers almost unlimited and supernatural. At his command, with but a slight effort on his part, old worlds would disappear, and new ones of his planning would spring into being.

"He could fix, solidify and preserve the ethereal shapes of his imagining, the fleeting visions of his dreams. He could express all the creations of his mind, on any scale, in forms concrete and imperishable.

"He could alter the size of this planet, control its seasons, guide it along any path he might choose through the depths of the Universe.

"He could make planets collide and produce his suns and stars, his heat and light. He could originate and develop life in all its infinite forms.

"To create and to annihilate material substance, cause it to aggregate in forms according to his desire, would be the supreme manifestation of the power of Man’s mind, his most complete triumph over the physical world, his crowning achievement which would place him beside his Creator and fulfill his ultimate destiny.”

Tesla’s work, imagination and mind was ahead of our time!

🐐

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“MAN’S GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT.”

By Nikola Tesla

San Antonio Sunday Light. San Antonio, Texas, July 20, 1930.

“WHEN a child is born its sense-organs are brought in contact with the outer world.

"The waves of sound, heat and light beat upon its feeble body, its sensitive nerve-fibres quiver, the muscles contract and relax in obedience: a gasp, a breath, and in this act a marvelous little engine, of inconceivable delicacy and complexity of construction, unlike any on earth, is hitched to the wheel-work of the Universe.

"The little engine labors and grows, performs more and more involved operations, becomes sensitive to ever subtler influences and now there manifests itself in the fully developed being–Man–a desire mysterious, inscrutable and irresistible: to imitate nature, to create, to work himself the wonders he perceives.

"Inspired to this task he searches, discovers and invents, designs and constructs, and enriches with monuments of beauty, grandeur and awe, the star of his birth.

"He descends into the bowels of the globe to bring forth its hidden treasures and to unlock its immense imprisoned energies for his use.

"He invades the dark depths of the ocean and the azure regions of the sky.

"He peers into the innermost nooks and recesses of molecular structure and lays bare to his gaze worlds infinitely remote. He subdues and puts to his service the fierce, devastating spark of Prometheus, the titanic forces of the waterfall, the wind and the tide.

"He tames the thundering bolt of Jove and annihilates time and space. He makes the great Sun itself his obedient toiling slave.

"Such is his power and might that the heavens reverberate and the whole earth trembles by the mere sound of his voice.

"What has the future in store for this strange being, born of a breath, of perishable tissue, yet immortal, with his powers fearful and divine? What magic will be wrought by him in the end? What is to be his greatest deed, his crowning achievement?

"Long ago he recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space–the Akasa or luminiferous ether–which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena.

"The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance.

"Can Man control this grandest, most awe-inspiring of all processes in nature? Can he harness her inexhaustible energies to perform all their functions at his bidding, more still–can he so refine his means of control as to put them in operation simply by the force of his will?

"If he could do this he would have powers almost unlimited and supernatural. At his command, with but a slight effort on his part, old worlds would disappear, and new ones of his planning would spring into being.

"He could fix, solidify and preserve the ethereal shapes of his imagining, the fleeting visions of his dreams. He could express all the creations of his mind, on any scale, in forms concrete and imperishable.

"He could alter the size of this planet, control its seasons, guide it along any path he might choose through the depths of the Universe.

"He could make planets collide and produce his suns and stars, his heat and light. He could originate and develop life in all its infinite forms.

"To create and to annihilate material substance, cause it to aggregate in forms according to his desire, would be the supreme manifestation of the power of Man’s mind, his most complete triumph over the physical world, his crowning achievement which would place him beside his Creator and fulfill his ultimate destiny.”

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Attack on Pearl Harbor: Nikola Tesla’s Attempt to Prevent Enemy Attacks.

Prior to World War II and the attack on Pearl Harbor, in 1935, Nikola Tesla sent an elaborate technical paper with diagrams to a number of allied nations including the United States, Canada, England, France, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia. It was titled New Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-Dispersive Energy Through Natural Media.” The paper provided the first technical description of a charged particle beam weapon. Tesla was communicating with the U.S. government and Prime Minster Chamberlain of Great Britain in an effort to promote his weapon for defense against enemy aerial attacks. The inventor’s correspondence with Chamberlain was his direct attempt to prevent Nazi Germany from taking over his native homeland, but when Great Britain, France and Italy agreed to let Germany annex Czechoslovakia at the Munich Conference in 1938, his communication with the Prime Minister came to an end. His ultimate goal was to prevent World War II.

Tesla’s device was a natural extension of his high frequency work where he produced 100 foot long sparks in his laboratory experiments at Colorado Springs in 1899. The next step was to control and direct this energy as a weapon. The device he proposed was a open vacuum tube that could charge small or large particles to millions of volts and project these highly charged “non-dispersive” particles through free air to bring down hundreds of enemy airplanes.

ILLUSTRATING OPEN VACUUM TUBE

A MODIFIED FORM OF OPEN VACUUM TUBE

Had the U.S. Government and other allies accepted and adopted Tesla’s inventions and proposals he could have made this country, and others, completely invulnerable to any foreign invasions. Particularly like what happened at Pearl Harbor in 1941. Unfortunately, his innovations weren’t taken seriously, and his hopes and dreams of furthering peace died with him in 1943.

Other articles references on his proposed weapon for peace:

“Tesla Invents Peace Ray: Tesla Describes His Beam of Destructive Energy.“ New York Sun, July 10, 1934.

“Beam To Kill Army At 200 Miles, Tesla’s Claim On 78th Birthday: Death Ray Also Available as Power Agent in Peace Times, Inventor Declares.” New York Herald TribuneJuly 11, 1934.

“Dr. Tesla Visions The End Of Aircraft In War.“ Every Week Magazine, Oct. 21, 1934.

“A Machine to End War: A Famous Inventor, Picturing Life 100 Years from Now Reveals an Astounding Scientific Venture Which He Believes Will Change the Course of History.” Liberty Magazine, February 9, 1935.

“Tesla Predicts Ships Powered By Shore Beam: Scoffs at Normandies “Speed,” Sees Success for His Plan to Use Stratosphere Ray, Would Light Sea at Night, and Says French Liner’s System Copied His in U. S. Boats.” New York Herald Tribune, June 5, 1935.

“Aerial Defense “Death Beam” Offered To U.S. By Tesla: Noted Inventor Says His Ray Will Melt Plane Motors at 250 Mile Range.“Baltimore Sun, July 12, 1940.

“Death Ray’ For Planes.” New York Times, September 22, 1940.

“Proposing The ‘Death Ray’ For Defense: The beam would melt enemy airplane motors before they approached our coasts and blow up hostile bombers.” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 20, 1940.

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loudgoateecreation:

drnikolatesla:

Nikola Tesla explaining his “World Wireless System“ and how it differs from today’s radio and wireless technology.

(Pre-hearing interview with Nikola Tesla’s legal counsel in 1916 to protect his radio patents from the Guglielmo Marconi and the Marconi Company.)

Tesla:

“The idea was to put the coil, with reference to the primary, in an inductive connection which was not close—we call it now a loose coupling—but free to permit a great resonant rise. That was the first single step, as I say, toward the evolution of an invention which I have called my “Magnifying Transmitter.” That means, a circuit connected to ground and to the antenna, of a tremendous electromagnetic momentum and small damping factor, with all the conditions so determined that an immense accumulation of electrical energy can take place…

“I mean that you have to have in the circuit, inertia. You have to have a large self-inductance in order that you may accomplish two things: First, a comparatively low frequency, which will reduce the radiation of the electromagnetic waves to a comparatively small value, and second, a great resonant effect. That is not possible in an antenna, for instance, of large capacity and small self-inductance. A large capacity and small self-inductance is the poorest kind of circuit which can be constructed; it gives a very small resonant effect. That was the reason why in my experiments in Colorado the energies were 1,000 times greater than in the present antennae.

Legal Counsel:

“You say the energy was 1,000 times greater. Do you mean that the voltage was increased, or the current, or both?”

Tesla:

“Yes, both. To be more explicit, I take a very large self-inductance and a comparatively small capacity, which I have constructed in a certain way so that the electricity cannot leak out. I thus obtain a low frequency; but, as you know, the electromagnetic radiation is proportionate to the square root of the capacity divided by the self-induction. I do not permit the energy to go out; I accumulate in that circuit a tremendous energy. When the high potential is attained, if I want to give off electromagnetic waves, I do so, but I prefer to reduce those waves in quantity and pass a current into the earth, because electromagnetic wave energy is not recoverable while the earth current is entirely recoverable, being the energy stored in an elastic system.“

Legal Counsel:

“What elastic system do you refer to?”

Tesla:

“I mean this: If you pass a current into a circuit with large self-induction, and no radiation takes place, and you have a low resistance, there is no possibility of this energy getting out into space; therefore, the impressed impulses accumulate.”

Legal Counsel:

“Let’s see if I understand this correctly. If you have radiation or electromagnetic waves going from your system, the energy is wasted?”

Tesla:

“Absolutely wasted. From my circuit you can get either electromagnetic waves, 90 percent of electromagnetic waves if you like, and 10 percent in the current energy that passes through the earth. Or, you can reverse the process and get 10 percent of the energy in electromagnetic waves and 90 percent in energy of the current that passes through the earth.

“It is just like this: I have invented a knife. The knife can cut with the sharp edge. I tell the man who applies my invention, you must cut with the sharp edge. I know perfectly well you can cut butter with the blunt edge, but my knife is not intended for this. You must not make the antenna give off 90 percent in electromagnetic and 10 percent in current waves, because the electromagnetic waves are lost by the time you are a few arcs around the planet, while the current travels to the uttermost distance of the globe and can be recovered.

“This view, by the way, is now confirmed.  Note, for instance, the mathematical treatise of Sommerfeld, [*] who shows that my theory is correct, that I was right in my explanations of the phenomena, and that the profession was completely misled. This is the reason why these followers of mine in high frequency currents have made a mistake. They wanted to make high frequency alternators of 200,000 cycles with the idea that they would produce electromagnetic waves, 90 percent in electromagnetic waves and the rest in current energy. I only used low alternations, and I produced 90 percent in current energy and only 10 percent in electromagnetic waves, which are wasted, and that is why I got my results.“

[*] Editorial note: In 1909, Sommerfeld performed a theoretical analysis of the propagation of radio waves around the earth, solving for the problem of a vertical dipole over a finitely conducting homogeneous ground. He divided the expression for the resulting field into "space wave” and “surface wave” components. The surface wave part had nearly identical properties to a unique plane surface wave solution to James Clark Maxwell’s equations that had been identified by Jonathon Zenneck two years previously. The field amplitudes varied inversely as the square root of the horizontal distance from the source and decayed exponentially with height above the interface. [Sommerfeld, Arnold N., “Uber die Ausbreitung der Wellen in der drahtlosen Telegraphie,” Annalen der Physik, March 16, 1909 (vol. 28, no. 4), OP. 665-736.]

Legal Counsel:

“You spoke… about getting all of the energy from your transmitting into your recieving station by this method of yours. I do not understand how you can get all of it.”

Tesla:

“Oh, that is hardly true; I am speaking as a matter of principle. You never can get all the energy, because there is no such thing as a perfect apparatus.”

Legal Counsel:

“I did not mean it in that sense. I understand that there is, of course, always some loss, but my conception was that when you created a disturbance in the commercial condition of the earth at your transmitting station, that that extended out in all radial directions.”

Tesla:

“Yes, it did.”

Legal Counsel:

“And therefore how, at any given station, can you get more than a small fraction of that energy?”

Tesla:

“Pardon me you are mistaken… In my first efforts, of course I simply contemplated to disturb effectively the earth, sufficiently to operate instruments. Well, you know you must first learn how to walk before you can fly. As I perfected my apparatus, I saw clearly that I can recover, of that energy which goes in all directions, a large amount, for the simple reason that in the system i have devised, one that current got into the earth it had no chance of escaping, because my frequency was low; hence, the electromagnetic radiation was low. The potential, the electric potential, is like temperature. We might as well call potential electric potential. The earth is a vast body. The potential differences in the earth are small, radiation is very small. Therefore, I’d I pass my current into the earth, the energy of the current is stored there as electromagnetic momentum of the vibrations and is not consumed until I put a reciever at a distance, when it will begin to draw the energy and it will go to that point and nowhere else.”

Legal Counsel:

“Why is that, on your theory?”

Tesla:

“I will explain it by an analogue.

"Suppose that the earth were an elastic bag filled with water. My transmitter is equivalent to a pump. I put it on a point of the globe, and work my little piston so as to create a disturbance of that water. If the piston moves slowly, so that the time is long enough for the disturbance to spread over the globe, then what will be the result of my working this pump? The result will be that the bag will expand and contract rhythmically with the motions of the piston, you see. So that, at any point of that bag, there will be a rhythmical movement due to the pulsations of the pump.

"That is only, however, when the period is long. If I were to work this pump very rapidly, then I would create impulses, and the ripples would spread in circles over the surface of the globe. The globe will no longer expand and contract in its entirety, but it will be subject to these outgoing, rippling waves.

"Remember, now, that the water is incompressible, that the bag is perfectly elastic, that there are no hysteretic losses in the bag due to these expansions and contractions; and remember also, that there is a vacuum, in infinite space, so that the energy cannot be lost in waves of sound. Then, if I put at a distant point another little pump, and tune it to the rhythmical pulses of the pump at the central plant, I will excite strong vibrations and will recover power from them, sufficient to operate a receiver. But, if I have no pump there to receive these oscillations, if there is nowhere a place where this elastic energy is transferred into frictional energy (we always use in our devices frictional energy – everything is lost through friction), then there is no loss, and if I have a plant of 1,000 horsepower and I operate it to full capacity, that plant does not take power, it runs idle, exactly as the plant at Niagara. If I do not put any motors or any lamps on the circuit, the plant runs idle. There is a 5,000 horsepower turbine going, but no power is supplied to the turbine except such power as is necessary to overcome the frictional losses.

"Now the vast difference between the scheme of radio engineers and my scheme is this. If you generate electromagnetic waves with a plant of 1,000 horsepower, you are using 1,000 horsepower right along – whether there is any receiving being done or not. You have to supply this 1,000 horsepower, exactly as you have to supply coal to keep your stove going, or else no heat goes out. That is the vast difference. In my case, I conserve the energy; in the other case, the energy is all lost.”

Legal Counsel:

“Mr. Tesla, does that not presuppose that the fluid must be incompressible?”

Tesla:

“I should say so, and electricity, whatever it is, certainly it is incompressible because all our experiments show that.”

Legal Counsel:

“Now, if you were giving that a name, what principle would you say was involved by which the radiation loss, where there is no receiver, becomes a gain or a conservation where there is a receiver?”

Tesla:

“There is no radiation in this case. You see, the apparatus which I have devised was an apparatus enabling one to produce tremendous differences of potential and currents in an antenna circuit. These requirements must be fulfilled, whether you transmit by currents of conduction, or whether you transmit by electromagnetic waves. You want high potential currents, you want a great amount of vibratory energy; but you can graduate this vibratory energy. By proper design and choice of wave lengths, you can arrange it so that you get, for instance, 5 percent in these electromagnetic waves and 95 percent in the current that goes through the earth. That is what I am doing. Or you can get, as these radio men, 95 percent in the energy of electromagnetic waves and only 5 percent in the energy of the current. The apparatus is suitable for one or the other method. I am not producing radiation with my system; I am suppressing electromagnetic waves. In my system, you should free yourself of the idea that there is radiation, that the energy is radiated. It is not radiated; it is conserved.”

“Nikola Tesla On His Works With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, and Transmission of Power.”Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, Colorado, 2002.

I saw a video on Youtube,saying that,a new Tesla Tower is built at Milford,Texas,U.S.A.,i don`t know if it is actually working yet,or the aims of it`s owners for future use of it.

Yes it’s being made by Viziv Technologies.

As Tesla explained above what his wireless system was intended to do, that is exactly what VT’s tower in Texas plans to do (to an extent at least I believe). From their website they claim, "Our Viziv surface wave system allows the Earth itself to be used for clean, safe and efficient transfer of power between any two points on the globe, wirelessly… The transition to a global wireless system utilizing the Zenneck surface wave is a breakthrough that will effectively “cut the cord” between power generation facilities and the local distribution grids. This breakthrough will significantly enhance energy surety, reliability, and resiliency of the world’s electrical distribution systems.”

Although they claim Jonathan Zenneck was the first known scientist to study electromagnetic wave propagation, my research on Nikola Tesla has proven that Tesla precedes him by over half a decade. Tesla actually meet and talked with Zenneck at one point and went over the calculations of his Sayville antenna and found that it was highly inefficient. So as this company praises Zenneck’s work, I hope they haven’t skipped over Tesla’s, who had a far better understanding.

I’m definitely going to keep following it though. Hope everything works for them. If not, at least it’s a start to bring us back to Tesla’s work.

Regular

Nikola Tesla explaining his “World Wireless System“ and how it differs from today’s radio and wireless technology.

(Pre-hearing interview with Nikola Tesla’s legal counsel in 1916 to protect his radio patents from the Guglielmo Marconi and the Marconi Company.)

Tesla:

“The idea was to put the coil, with reference to the primary, in an inductive connection which was not close—we call it now a loose coupling—but free to permit a great resonant rise. That was the first single step, as I say, toward the evolution of an invention which I have called my “Magnifying Transmitter.” That means, a circuit connected to ground and to the antenna, of a tremendous electromagnetic momentum and small damping factor, with all the conditions so determined that an immense accumulation of electrical energy can take place…

“I mean that you have to have in the circuit, inertia. You have to have a large self-inductance in order that you may accomplish two things: First, a comparatively low frequency, which will reduce the radiation of the electromagnetic waves to a comparatively small value, and second, a great resonant effect. That is not possible in an antenna, for instance, of large capacity and small self-inductance. A large capacity and small self-inductance is the poorest kind of circuit which can be constructed; it gives a very small resonant effect. That was the reason why in my experiments in Colorado the energies were 1,000 times greater than in the present antennae.

Legal Counsel:

"You say the energy was 1,000 times greater. Do you mean that the voltage was increased, or the current, or both?”

Tesla:

“Yes, both. To be more explicit, I take a very large self-inductance and a comparatively small capacity, which I have constructed in a certain way so that the electricity cannot leak out. I thus obtain a low frequency; but, as you know, the electromagnetic radiation is proportionate to the square root of the capacity divided by the self-induction. I do not permit the energy to go out; I accumulate in that circuit a tremendous energy. When the high potential is attained, if I want to give off electromagnetic waves, I do so, but I prefer to reduce those waves in quantity and pass a current into the earth, because electromagnetic wave energy is not recoverable while the earth current is entirely recoverable, being the energy stored in an elastic system.“

Legal Counsel:

"What elastic system do you refer to?”

Tesla:

“I mean this: If you pass a current into a circuit with large self-induction, and no radiation takes place, and you have a low resistance, there is no possibility of this energy getting out into space; therefore, the impressed impulses accumulate.”

Legal Counsel:

“Let’s see if I understand this correctly. If you have radiation or electromagnetic waves going from your system, the energy is wasted?”

Tesla:

“Absolutely wasted. From my circuit you can get either electromagnetic waves, 90 percent of electromagnetic waves if you like, and 10 percent in the current energy that passes through the earth. Or, you can reverse the process and get 10 percent of the energy in electromagnetic waves and 90 percent in energy of the current that passes through the earth.

“It is just like this: I have invented a knife. The knife can cut with the sharp edge. I tell the man who applies my invention, you must cut with the sharp edge. I know perfectly well you can cut butter with the blunt edge, but my knife is not intended for this. You must not make the antenna give off 90 percent in electromagnetic and 10 percent in current waves, because the electromagnetic waves are lost by the time you are a few arcs around the planet, while the current travels to the uttermost distance of the globe and can be recovered.

“This view, by the way, is now confirmed.  Note, for instance, the mathematical treatise of Sommerfeld, [*] who shows that my theory is correct, that I was right in my explanations of the phenomena, and that the profession was completely misled. This is the reason why these followers of mine in high frequency currents have made a mistake. They wanted to make high frequency alternators of 200,000 cycles with the idea that they would produce electromagnetic waves, 90 percent in electromagnetic waves and the rest in current energy. I only used low alternations, and I produced 90 percent in current energy and only 10 percent in electromagnetic waves, which are wasted, and that is why I got my results.“

[*] Editorial note: In 1909, Sommerfeld performed a theoretical analysis of the propagation of radio waves around the earth, solving for the problem of a vertical dipole over a finitely conducting homogeneous ground. He divided the expression for the resulting field into "space wave” and “surface wave” components. The surface wave part had nearly identical properties to a unique plane surface wave solution to James Clark Maxwell’s equations that had been identified by Jonathon Zenneck two years previously. The field amplitudes varied inversely as the square root of the horizontal distance from the source and decayed exponentially with height above the interface. [Sommerfeld, Arnold N., “Uber die Ausbreitung der Wellen in der drahtlosen Telegraphie,” Annalen der Physik, March 16, 1909 (vol. 28, no. 4), OP. 665-736.]

Legal Counsel:

“You spoke… about getting all of the energy from your transmitting into your recieving station by this method of yours. I do not understand how you can get all of it.”

Tesla:

“Oh, that is hardly true; I am speaking as a matter of principle. You never can get all the energy, because there is no such thing as a perfect apparatus.”

Legal Counsel:

“I did not mean it in that sense. I understand that there is, of course, always some loss, but my conception was that when you created a disturbance in the commercial condition of the earth at your transmitting station, that that extended out in all radial directions.”

Tesla:

“Yes, it did.”

Legal Counsel:

“And therefore how, at any given station, can you get more than a small fraction of that energy?”

Tesla:

“Pardon me you are mistaken… In my first efforts, of course I simply contemplated to disturb effectively the earth, sufficiently to operate instruments. Well, you know you must first learn how to walk before you can fly. As I perfected my apparatus, I saw clearly that I can recover, of that energy which goes in all directions, a large amount, for the simple reason that in the system i have devised, one that current got into the earth it had no chance of escaping, because my frequency was low; hence, the electromagnetic radiation was low. The potential, the electric potential, is like temperature. We might as well call potential electric potential. The earth is a vast body. The potential differences in the earth are small, radiation is very small. Therefore, I’d I pass my current into the earth, the energy of the current is stored there as electromagnetic momentum of the vibrations and is not consumed until I put a reciever at a distance, when it will begin to draw the energy and it will go to that point and nowhere else.”

Legal Counsel:

“Why is that, on your theory?”

Tesla:

“I will explain it by an analogue.

"Suppose that the earth were an elastic bag filled with water. My transmitter is equivalent to a pump. I put it on a point of the globe, and work my little piston so as to create a disturbance of that water. If the piston moves slowly, so that the time is long enough for the disturbance to spread over the globe, then what will be the result of my working this pump? The result will be that the bag will expand and contract rhythmically with the motions of the piston, you see. So that, at any point of that bag, there will be a rhythmical movement due to the pulsations of the pump.

"That is only, however, when the period is long. If I were to work this pump very rapidly, then I would create impulses, and the ripples would spread in circles over the surface of the globe. The globe will no longer expand and contract in its entirety, but it will be subject to these outgoing, rippling waves.

"Remember, now, that the water is incompressible, that the bag is perfectly elastic, that there are no hysteretic losses in the bag due to these expansions and contractions; and remember also, that there is a vacuum, in infinite space, so that the energy cannot be lost in waves of sound. Then, if I put at a distant point another little pump, and tune it to the rhythmical pulses of the pump at the central plant, I will excite strong vibrations and will recover power from them, sufficient to operate a receiver. But, if I have no pump there to receive these oscillations, if there is nowhere a place where this elastic energy is transferred into frictional energy (we always use in our devices frictional energy – everything is lost through friction), then there is no loss, and if I have a plant of 1,000 horsepower and I operate it to full capacity, that plant does not take power, it runs idle, exactly as the plant at Niagara. If I do not put any motors or any lamps on the circuit, the plant runs idle. There is a 5,000 horsepower turbine going, but no power is supplied to the turbine except such power as is necessary to overcome the frictional losses.

"Now the vast difference between the scheme of radio engineers and my scheme is this. If you generate electromagnetic waves with a plant of 1,000 horsepower, you are using 1,000 horsepower right along – whether there is any receiving being done or not. You have to supply this 1,000 horsepower, exactly as you have to supply coal to keep your stove going, or else no heat goes out. That is the vast difference. In my case, I conserve the energy; in the other case, the energy is all lost.”

Legal Counsel:

“Mr. Tesla, does that not presuppose that the fluid must be incompressible?”

Tesla:

“I should say so, and electricity, whatever it is, certainly it is incompressible because all our experiments show that.”

Legal Counsel:

“Now, if you were giving that a name, what principle would you say was involved by which the radiation loss, where there is no receiver, becomes a gain or a conservation where there is a receiver?”

Tesla:

“There is no radiation in this case. You see, the apparatus which I have devised was an apparatus enabling one to produce tremendous differences of potential and currents in an antenna circuit. These requirements must be fulfilled, whether you transmit by currents of conduction, or whether you transmit by electromagnetic waves. You want high potential currents, you want a great amount of vibratory energy; but you can graduate this vibratory energy. By proper design and choice of wave lengths, you can arrange it so that you get, for instance, 5 percent in these electromagnetic waves and 95 percent in the current that goes through the earth. That is what I am doing. Or you can get, as these radio men, 95 percent in the energy of electromagnetic waves and only 5 percent in the energy of the current. The apparatus is suitable for one or the other method. I am not producing radiation with my system; I am suppressing electromagnetic waves. In my system, you should free yourself of the idea that there is radiation, that the energy is radiated. It is not radiated; it is conserved.”

“Nikola Tesla On His Works With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, and Transmission of Power.”Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, Colorado, 2002.

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Proof Nikola Tesla Is the True Father of Radio, Not Marconi

“Rereading the Supreme Court: Tesla’s Invention of Radio.”

Editors’ note: This essay responds to “Misreading the Supreme Court: A Puzzling Chapter in the History of Radio” by A. David Wunsch in the November 1998 issue of Antenna.

By Wallace Edward Brand. Antenna, Vol. 11, No. 2, May 1999.

As regular readers of this newsletter know, on June 21, 1943, the Supreme Court affirmed a 1935 ruling of the United States Court of Claims which essentially invalidated Marconi’s claim of having invented radio, and clarified Tesla’s role in inventing radio.

The granting of a patent in itself does not help to establish priority of invention. Unlike an infringement action, in a patent grant application no one but the examiner goes out of his way to dig up facts that provide a basis for the rejection of the patent. The patent examiner tries to do this, but is limited to papers on file in the patent office or available to him without great effort or expense. The applicant’s attorney is supposed to bring to the examiner’s attention all the adverse information he runs across, but he doesn’t waste his client’s money trying to find data which will help the examiner find grounds to deny the patent.

The radio litigation discussed here arose in the Court of Claims, in a claim for taking intellectual property that was basically the same as an infringement action. Marconi filed a claim against the U. S. government for taking four patents. The patents were: reissue no. 11,913 of patent no. 586,193, granted to Marconi on June 4, 1901, for a two-circuit system for transmitting and receiving signals (one circuit in the transmitter; another in the receiver); patent no. 763,772, granted to Marconi on June 28, 1904, for a four-circuit system of wireless telegraphy; and two patents granted to Oliver Lodge and John Fleming, but assigned to Marconi. The total claim was for $6,000,000, a lot of money in 1916, and justified full development of the facts by the parties to the litigation. It was worthwhile to the government to spend the money to determine whether there was prior art that would invalidate Marconi’s patent.

I will first summarize the rulings of the Court of Claims and the Supreme Court, which took the case on petition, then provide more detail on their decisions. I focus on the decision of the Court of Claims, because unless the upper court says it is reversing or vacating the decision below, or affirming it on other grounds, the opinion of the upper court should be read as additional to the opinion of the trial court, not in lieu of it. In fact, more attention should be paid to the affirmed lower court’s opinion, because the trial court is closer to the facts. Its decision recites a view that has been accepted by two courts, not just one.

The Court of Claims decided that the government did not infringe Marconi’s two-circuit patent. That patent was not an issue before the Supreme Court, which had no jurisdiction to rule on the patent, because the Constitution limits the Supreme Court to ruling on cases in controversy. Furthermore, even if the two-circuit system were found to be a viable system of radio communication, the four-circuit system made it obsolete. The focus of the Court of Claims litigation thus was on the four-circuit patent.

Fifteen of the twenty claims made in the four-circuit patent application were the subject of the litigation. The Court of Claims found for Marconi only one, claim 16, which the Supreme Court sent back for reconsideration. It never was reconsidered; Marconi settled all claims for about $34,000 plus interest.

As for the validity of Marconi’s four-circuit patent, no. 763,772, the Court of Claims noted the great difficulty Marconi had in obtaining the patent. Marconi repeatedly filed new specifications and claims, but these were rejected because of prior art. After J. P. Morgan became one of Marconi’s backers, Marconi presented another petition for revival on February 19, 1904. The Commissioner of Patents granted it. A new examiner acted on the case and allowed all claims formerly rejected for reasons stated in a brief letter.

The Court of Claims, however, disagreed with the new patent examiner. The initial examiner had disallowed Marconi’s patent based on, among several others, two patents of Tesla that preceded Marconi’s, numbers 645,576 and 649,621, in which he used four tuned circuits. Although Tesla had not specified how to tune the circuits, one of the patent examiners stated that it was fair to assume Tesla intended to use either of the two available methods. Furthermore, Tesla’s earlier patent no. 645,576 of March 20, 1900, referred to tuning no less than six times.

[Perfected system of wireless transmission with four tuned circuits. Described in U.S. Patent Nos. 645,576 of March 20, 1900 and 649,621 of May 15, 1900. Applications filed September 2, 1897.]

In the opinion of the Court of Claims, Tesla had shown the advantage of all four circuits being tuned. Oliver Lodge had taken the two-circuit system and tuned the open circuits in the same way used later by Marconi. Stone described a four-circuit system with the closed circuits tuned together. “A consideration of these three systems,” the Court decided, “would naturally suggest to one skilled in the art the tuning of all four circuits together by the use of the adjustable self-inductance method in the manner proposed by Lodge, and Stone put this suggestion into practice when he filed the amendment to his specifications. Marconi used the suggestion earlier in the application for his patent, but under the circumstances we think neither Stone nor Marconi was entitled to credit for it.” That is because Stone had acknowledged Tesla’s priority.

In summary, I read the Court of Claims’ opinion as deciding that the four-circuit system was invented by Tesla, based specifically on the above statement of the Court of Claims. Also persuasive is the reading of the Court of Claims opinion in the same way by Marconi’s attorney. Specifically, in his brief to the Supreme Court in 1943, he stated: “It is not quite clear whether the Court [of Claims] thought that the Tesla patents alone fully anticipated the Marconi claims, or whether a combination of Tesla, Lodge and Stone made the Marconi claims invalid.” Does the Supreme Court’s considerable reliance on the work of Stone in their opinion detract from Tesla’s deserved priority of invention? I think not for at least four reasons.

[Diagrams illustrating the system of four-tuned circuits as applied to wireless transmission. Described in U.S. Patent No. 568,178 of September 22, 1896. Application filed June 20, 1896. This is the first four- circuit system patent which was stolen by Marconi other radio engieers.]

First, the Supreme Court affirmed the Court of Claims rejection of Marconi’s claims under the four-circuit patent (all except the lower court’s ruling in favor of Marconi on claim 16, which the Supreme Court vacated). Second, it is reasonable to expect the Supreme Court to emphasize the work of Stone to buttress the Court of Claims opinion. Marconi’s lawyer attacked the Tesla patent before the Supreme Court as being science fiction worthy of Jules Verne. It therefore was reasonable for the Supreme Court to respond to the argument by showing that Stone, a distinguished scientist, had priority over Marconi (based on Stone’s letters to Butler), but not Tesla. Third, as the Supreme Court mentioned, Stone, in a letter to his friend Butler, acknowledged that his four-circuit apparatus basically was the same as Tesla’s.

Fourth, the Court of Claims said it was unnecessary to find that Stone had priority because of Tesla’s priority. All that is left is the significance of the Court of Claims’ marginal award of invention to Marconi for the two-circuit system. The government’s lawyer claimed that Marconi’s two-circuit system essentially was the same as that used by Hertz to verify the theories of James Clerk Maxwell. Furthermore, Marconi’s own lawyer said that the two-circuit system “would operate, but only at short distances, because there was too much waste of energy.” Even Justice Frankfurter, who dissented bitterly in favor of Marconi, acknowledged that the two-circuit patent was not a significant factor in the innovation of radio.

[Diagram showing Marconi’s reissue Patent No. 11,913 of June 4, 1901. Application filed April 1, 1901. There is a conductor connected to the antenna and the ground with a break in it. The break means resistance and diminution of resonant rise meaning it wastes energy. Marconi’s system was inferior to Tesla’s which had no break and wasted no energy.]

Finally, there are the two portions of the Supreme Court Opinion sometimes cited as preserving Marconi’s priority of invention. The first is the sentence in the majority opinion that declares: “Marconi’s reputation as the man who first achieved successful radio transmission rests on his original patent, which became reissue no. 11, 9013, and which is not here in question.” The pronoun “which” has an ambiguous antecedent. Is it Marconi’s reputation or the validity of the patent that is “not here in question”? I interpret it as referring to Marconi’s reputation, as neither party sought review of the Court of Claims decision on the reissue patent. Even if it did refer to the patent, the statement would be significant only if Marconi’s combination of elements invented by others played an important role in the progress of radio. It did not, because the two-circuit system could transmit only a few miles. The second citation is to Justice Frankfurter’s dissenting opinion. It is clear that he found it difficult to understand the facts, because he failed to cite a single one in support of his view that those prior to Marconi lacked “the flash-that begot the idea in Marconi.” Perhaps it was for that reason that he failed to persuade the majority.

Marconi deserves great credit for his vigorous commercialization of wireless telegraphy and radio. He recognized the business advantages of a claim to invention of the products and services he marketed as a check on his competition. In those days, most monopolies were formed by merging or buying up the competition, or by driving smaller competitors out of business through costly patent litigation where possible. In sum, though, the evidence available from historical documents simply does not support Marconi’s claim of invention; it does clarify Tesla’s role in inventing radio.

Wallace Edward Brand worked as a federal government lawyer in several jobs, principally as a trial lawyer, including as lead government counsel in the seminal cases under the 1970 revision of the Atomic Energy Act which served to promote competition among electric utilities. From 1974 to 1999 he has been engaged in the private practice of energy law, principally cases involving electric power, representing small municipal and cooperative electric utilities in actions against larger ones. He is currently writing a book about the electric power business.

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poopdoggydogg:

drnikolatesla:

“I never have, above my signature, announced anything that I did not prove first. That is the reason why no statement of mine was ever contradicted, and I do not think it will be, because whenever I publish something I go through it first by experiment, then from experiment I calculate, and when I have the theory and practice meet I announced the results.”

–Nikola Tesla

(Tesla explaining his wireless art in a pre-hearing interview with his legal counsel in 1916 to protect his radio patents from the Guglielmo Marconi and the Marconi Company.)

“Nikola Tesla On His Works With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, and Transmission of Power.” Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, Colorado, 2002.

Facts!!!