Cold water heats up faster then hot water
Cold water heats up faster then hot water
New York, January 1, 1904
I wish to announce that in connection with the commercial introduction of my inventions I shall render professional services in the general capacity of consulting electrician and engineer. The near future, I expect with confidence, will be a witness of revolutionary departures in the production, transformation and transmission of energy, transportation, lighting, manufacture of chemical compounds, telegraphy, telephony and other arts and industries.
In my opinion, these advances are certain to follow from the universal adoption of high-potential and high frequency currents and novel regenerative processes of refrigeration to very low temperatures.
Much of the old apparatus will have to be improved, and much of the new developed, and I believe that while furthering my own inventions, I shall be more helpful in this evolution by placing at the disposal of others the knowledge and experience I have gained. Special attention will be given by me to the solution of problems requiring both expert information and inventive resource – work coming within the sphere of my constant trailing and predilection.
I shall undertake the experimental investigation and perfection of ideas, methods and appliances, the devising of useful expedients and in particular, the design and construction of machinery for the attainment of desired results. Any task submitted to and accepted by me, will be carried out thoroughly and conscientiously.
Laboratory, Long Island, N.Y.
Residence. Waldorf, New York City.
“He has produced nothing tangible for a long time, but he still remains one of the foremost living inventors of electrical apparatus. His day comes once a year. On his birthday Manhattan newshawks seek him out in some hotel, listen closely to his words. Wearing an outmoded brown suit, he received the Press one day last week in a Hotel New Yorker reception room. That day Nikola Tesla was 78.
"The first thing Nikola Tesla invented was a hook for catching frogs. That was not long after he learned to talk, in the Croatian hamlet of Smiljan where he was born. He studied physics and mathematics at two universities, got into telegraph engineering, went to Budapest, to Paris, to the U. S. in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison. Soon he had a research laboratory of his own. Four years later he patented the induction motor, first effective utilization of alternating current. He discovered the rotary magnetic field principle used today in the hydroelectric plants at Niagara Falls. He invented dynamos, transformers, induction coils, condensers, arc and incandescent lamps. He was acclaimed a great genius.
"All that was long ago and Tesla has lingered on into a twilight of semi-obscurity. His hotel room is now his only laboratory, his brain his only tool. When callers importune him he takes a bath or goes to bed. When he talks about his work his deep-set blue eyes burn with an icy fire. He walks prodigious distances through the city streets. His most valued friends are the New York Public Library’s somnolent pigeons. A life-long bachelor, Dr. Tesla is tall, spare, erect, parchment-skinned, beak-nosed. The mustache he once wore is gone.
"Even at the peak of his renown he had great visions. In 1900 he was ready to cure tuberculosis with oscillating electricity. In 1909 he promised motors capable of driving ocean liners at 50 knots. In 1911 it was storm-proof dirigibles without propellers. In the last decade his annual utterances have been mostly rehashes of previous interviews, with something new every three or four years. In 1924 he was planning to transmit power by radio. In 1927 he was scheming to harness sea power. In 1931 he would make all fuels superfluous by tapping cosmic energy. Last week Dr. Tesla announced a combination of four inventions which would make war unthinkable.
"Nucleus of the idea is a death ray — a concentrated beam of sub-microscopic particles flying at velocities approaching that of light. The beam, according to Tesla, would drop an army in its tracks, bring down squadrons of airplanes 250 miles away. Inventor Tesla would discharge the ray by means of: 1) a device to nullify the impeding effect of the atmosphere on the particles; 2) a method for setting up a high potential; 3) a process for amplifying that potential to 50,000,000 volts; 4) creation of “a tremendous electrical repelling force.” Two of these are complete in Dr. Tesla’s mind. The other two await minor details.
"Dr. Tesla pointed out that the weapon is purely one of defense, since his beam must be generated in great immovable power plants. With generators set up on all the world’s national boundaries, no country would ever again be able to attack another. Further details, said Dr. Tesla, would be unfolded before the Geneva Disarmament Conference.
"The death ray, always exciting to laymen, is an old familiar to scientists. After the interplanetary “space ship,” it is probably the most popular gadget in pseudoscientific fiction. Even in Herbert George Wells’s shrewdly written War of the Worlds (1898), the first act of arriving Martians is to spray spectators with a death beam. In real life death rays have been announced time & again, but never convincingly demonstrated. When one Harry Grinnell-Matthews loudly announced a death ray some years ago in England, Physicist Robert Williams Wood of Johns Hopkins said he would stand 65 ft. from the apparatus and invite Mr. Grinnell-Matthews to turn on his radiations full blast. Last month in Omaha the Inventors’ Congress was informed by its President Albert G. Burns that he had witnessed a death ray demonstration staged by a Clevelander named Antonio Longoria. Rabbits, dogs and cats, said President Burns, were killed instantly, their blood turned to water. But Inventor Longoria said he would withhold his secret until invasion threatened the U. S.
"Excellent is Dr. Tesla’s health, but he looks now & then beyond the grave. When he is reminded that in some quarters his pronouncements are written off as senile hallucinations. he replies with simple dignity: “The opinion of the world does not affect me. I have placed as the real values in my life what follows when I am dead.”
NIKOLA TESLA: THE FIRST JEDI
Method of Lighting Wireless Vacuum Tubes Devoid of Any Electrodes Placed In An Alternating Electrostatic Field.
In 1891, just before becoming an American citizen, Nikola Tesla was asked to lecture before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at the Columbia University in New York. He performed experiments with alternating currents of very high frequency and left an audience of America’s greatest engineers spell-bound as he demonstrated a new theory of light. This lecture would be the first public demonstration of transmitting wireless energy, making Tesla the true father of radio and wireless power.
Throughout his investigations of alternating currents of very high frequency phenomena, Tesla satisfied himself with the conclusion that light bulbs using carbon filaments were inferior, and that an electric field of sufficient intensity could be made to fill a room and light electrodeless vacuum tubes. This was done by connecting two large sheets of zinc to the terminal of the circuit with the sheets being spread apart about fifteen feet away from each other. The sheets served as condensers, and both received the charge of electricity from the wires connecting the sheets to the transformer, creating an electric field between the two. Tesla would then introduce vacuum tubes and place them between the zinc sheets–illuminating the tubes and lighting the room. He waved the vacuum tubes around like a Jedi showcasing the first light sabers, and the tubes continued to glow as long as they remained in the electric field.
He accomplished this by upping the speed of his dynamo, transforming his alternating currents into a continuous flow of static currents. This allowed him to pass a large amount of energy from sheet to sheet, or even through his body, without any harm. To help better explain this, direct currents carry an electric charge along a conductor which travel in one single direction, like a straight line, while the charge in AC alternate back and forth in waveform. Both are extremely dangerous! Static currents, on the other hand, are stationary with no movement. Tesla would speed up his AC so fast that they would transform into a static current, allowing him to create a static field of electricity capable of lighting his wireless bulbs.
The electrical wizard went on to show the absolute harmlessness of his electric system by passing thousands of volts of electricity through his body–lighting light bulbs and shooting sparks out of his finger tips.
These amazing demonstrations would set Tesla apart from the rest of the scientific world, and the inventor would be showered with awards and invitations from all around the world begging him to share his work.
“All preliminary information is necessarily incomplete, but I always make sure that it is based on demonstrated fact and accurate as far as it goes. My illustrious namesake, Copernicus, used to go twenty times over his scientific statements before giving them out;
nevertheless, compared with the attention I bestow upon my own, he might have been considered a careless man.”
(“Tesla on Power Development and Future Marvels.” New York World Telegram. July 24, 1934.)
“By this invention every live part of Mother Earth’s body would be brought into action. Energy will be collected all over the globe in amounts small or large, as it may exist, ranging from a fraction of one to a few horse power or more. Every waterfall can be utilized, every coal field made to produce energy to be transmitted to vast distances, and every place on earth can have power at small cost. One of the minor uses might be the illumination of isolated homes. We could light houses all over the country by means of vacuum tubes operated by high frequency currents. We could keep the clocks of the United States going and give every one exact time; we could turn factories, machine shops and mills, small or large, anywhere, and I believe could also navigate the air.
“One of the most important features of this invention will be the transmission of intelligence. It will convert the entire earth into a huge brain, capable of responding in every one of its parts. By the employment of a number of plants, each of which can transmit signals to all parts of the world, the news of the globe will be flashed to all points. A cheap and simple receiving device, which might be carried in one’s pocket, can be set up anywhere on sea or land, and it will record the world’s news as it occurs, or take such special messages as are intended for it. If you are in the heart of the Sahara your wife can telegraph you from Washington, and if the instrument is properly made you alone will get the message. A single plant of a few horse power could operate hundreds of such instruments, so that the invention has an infinite working capacity and will cheapen the transmission of all kinds of intelligence.”
“A Talk With Nikola Tesla.” By Frank G. Carpenter. The State, December 18, 1904.