Category: discovery

Regular

Nikola Tesla explaining his “World Wireless System“ and how it differs from today’s radio and wireless technology.

(Pre-hearing interview with Nikola Tesla’s legal counsel in 1916 to protect his radio patents from the Guglielmo Marconi and the Marconi Company.)

Tesla:

“The idea was to put the coil, with reference to the primary, in an inductive connection which was not close—we call it now a loose coupling—but free to permit a great resonant rise. That was the first single step, as I say, toward the evolution of an invention which I have called my “Magnifying Transmitter.” That means, a circuit connected to ground and to the antenna, of a tremendous electromagnetic momentum and small damping factor, with all the conditions so determined that an immense accumulation of electrical energy can take place…

“I mean that you have to have in the circuit, inertia. You have to have a large self-inductance in order that you may accomplish two things: First, a comparatively low frequency, which will reduce the radiation of the electromagnetic waves to a comparatively small value, and second, a great resonant effect. That is not possible in an antenna, for instance, of large capacity and small self-inductance. A large capacity and small self-inductance is the poorest kind of circuit which can be constructed; it gives a very small resonant effect. That was the reason why in my experiments in Colorado the energies were 1,000 times greater than in the present antennae.

Legal Counsel:

"You say the energy was 1,000 times greater. Do you mean that the voltage was increased, or the current, or both?”

Tesla:

“Yes, both. To be more explicit, I take a very large self-inductance and a comparatively small capacity, which I have constructed in a certain way so that the electricity cannot leak out. I thus obtain a low frequency; but, as you know, the electromagnetic radiation is proportionate to the square root of the capacity divided by the self-induction. I do not permit the energy to go out; I accumulate in that circuit a tremendous energy. When the high potential is attained, if I want to give off electromagnetic waves, I do so, but I prefer to reduce those waves in quantity and pass a current into the earth, because electromagnetic wave energy is not recoverable while the earth current is entirely recoverable, being the energy stored in an elastic system.“

Legal Counsel:

"What elastic system do you refer to?”

Tesla:

“I mean this: If you pass a current into a circuit with large self-induction, and no radiation takes place, and you have a low resistance, there is no possibility of this energy getting out into space; therefore, the impressed impulses accumulate.”

Legal Counsel:

“Let’s see if I understand this correctly. If you have radiation or electromagnetic waves going from your system, the energy is wasted?”

Tesla:

“Absolutely wasted. From my circuit you can get either electromagnetic waves, 90 percent of electromagnetic waves if you like, and 10 percent in the current energy that passes through the earth. Or, you can reverse the process and get 10 percent of the energy in electromagnetic waves and 90 percent in energy of the current that passes through the earth.

“It is just like this: I have invented a knife. The knife can cut with the sharp edge. I tell the man who applies my invention, you must cut with the sharp edge. I know perfectly well you can cut butter with the blunt edge, but my knife is not intended for this. You must not make the antenna give off 90 percent in electromagnetic and 10 percent in current waves, because the electromagnetic waves are lost by the time you are a few arcs around the planet, while the current travels to the uttermost distance of the globe and can be recovered.

“This view, by the way, is now confirmed.  Note, for instance, the mathematical treatise of Sommerfeld, [*] who shows that my theory is correct, that I was right in my explanations of the phenomena, and that the profession was completely misled. This is the reason why these followers of mine in high frequency currents have made a mistake. They wanted to make high frequency alternators of 200,000 cycles with the idea that they would produce electromagnetic waves, 90 percent in electromagnetic waves and the rest in current energy. I only used low alternations, and I produced 90 percent in current energy and only 10 percent in electromagnetic waves, which are wasted, and that is why I got my results.“

[*] Editorial note: In 1909, Sommerfeld performed a theoretical analysis of the propagation of radio waves around the earth, solving for the problem of a vertical dipole over a finitely conducting homogeneous ground. He divided the expression for the resulting field into "space wave” and “surface wave” components. The surface wave part had nearly identical properties to a unique plane surface wave solution to James Clark Maxwell’s equations that had been identified by Jonathon Zenneck two years previously. The field amplitudes varied inversely as the square root of the horizontal distance from the source and decayed exponentially with height above the interface. [Sommerfeld, Arnold N., “Uber die Ausbreitung der Wellen in der drahtlosen Telegraphie,” Annalen der Physik, March 16, 1909 (vol. 28, no. 4), OP. 665-736.]

Legal Counsel:

“You spoke… about getting all of the energy from your transmitting into your recieving station by this method of yours. I do not understand how you can get all of it.”

Tesla:

“Oh, that is hardly true; I am speaking as a matter of principle. You never can get all the energy, because there is no such thing as a perfect apparatus.”

Legal Counsel:

“I did not mean it in that sense. I understand that there is, of course, always some loss, but my conception was that when you created a disturbance in the commercial condition of the earth at your transmitting station, that that extended out in all radial directions.”

Tesla:

“Yes, it did.”

Legal Counsel:

“And therefore how, at any given station, can you get more than a small fraction of that energy?”

Tesla:

“Pardon me you are mistaken… In my first efforts, of course I simply contemplated to disturb effectively the earth, sufficiently to operate instruments. Well, you know you must first learn how to walk before you can fly. As I perfected my apparatus, I saw clearly that I can recover, of that energy which goes in all directions, a large amount, for the simple reason that in the system i have devised, one that current got into the earth it had no chance of escaping, because my frequency was low; hence, the electromagnetic radiation was low. The potential, the electric potential, is like temperature. We might as well call potential electric potential. The earth is a vast body. The potential differences in the earth are small, radiation is very small. Therefore, I’d I pass my current into the earth, the energy of the current is stored there as electromagnetic momentum of the vibrations and is not consumed until I put a reciever at a distance, when it will begin to draw the energy and it will go to that point and nowhere else.”

Legal Counsel:

“Why is that, on your theory?”

Tesla:

“I will explain it by an analogue.

"Suppose that the earth were an elastic bag filled with water. My transmitter is equivalent to a pump. I put it on a point of the globe, and work my little piston so as to create a disturbance of that water. If the piston moves slowly, so that the time is long enough for the disturbance to spread over the globe, then what will be the result of my working this pump? The result will be that the bag will expand and contract rhythmically with the motions of the piston, you see. So that, at any point of that bag, there will be a rhythmical movement due to the pulsations of the pump.

"That is only, however, when the period is long. If I were to work this pump very rapidly, then I would create impulses, and the ripples would spread in circles over the surface of the globe. The globe will no longer expand and contract in its entirety, but it will be subject to these outgoing, rippling waves.

"Remember, now, that the water is incompressible, that the bag is perfectly elastic, that there are no hysteretic losses in the bag due to these expansions and contractions; and remember also, that there is a vacuum, in infinite space, so that the energy cannot be lost in waves of sound. Then, if I put at a distant point another little pump, and tune it to the rhythmical pulses of the pump at the central plant, I will excite strong vibrations and will recover power from them, sufficient to operate a receiver. But, if I have no pump there to receive these oscillations, if there is nowhere a place where this elastic energy is transferred into frictional energy (we always use in our devices frictional energy – everything is lost through friction), then there is no loss, and if I have a plant of 1,000 horsepower and I operate it to full capacity, that plant does not take power, it runs idle, exactly as the plant at Niagara. If I do not put any motors or any lamps on the circuit, the plant runs idle. There is a 5,000 horsepower turbine going, but no power is supplied to the turbine except such power as is necessary to overcome the frictional losses.

"Now the vast difference between the scheme of radio engineers and my scheme is this. If you generate electromagnetic waves with a plant of 1,000 horsepower, you are using 1,000 horsepower right along – whether there is any receiving being done or not. You have to supply this 1,000 horsepower, exactly as you have to supply coal to keep your stove going, or else no heat goes out. That is the vast difference. In my case, I conserve the energy; in the other case, the energy is all lost.”

Legal Counsel:

“Mr. Tesla, does that not presuppose that the fluid must be incompressible?”

Tesla:

“I should say so, and electricity, whatever it is, certainly it is incompressible because all our experiments show that.”

Legal Counsel:

“Now, if you were giving that a name, what principle would you say was involved by which the radiation loss, where there is no receiver, becomes a gain or a conservation where there is a receiver?”

Tesla:

“There is no radiation in this case. You see, the apparatus which I have devised was an apparatus enabling one to produce tremendous differences of potential and currents in an antenna circuit. These requirements must be fulfilled, whether you transmit by currents of conduction, or whether you transmit by electromagnetic waves. You want high potential currents, you want a great amount of vibratory energy; but you can graduate this vibratory energy. By proper design and choice of wave lengths, you can arrange it so that you get, for instance, 5 percent in these electromagnetic waves and 95 percent in the current that goes through the earth. That is what I am doing. Or you can get, as these radio men, 95 percent in the energy of electromagnetic waves and only 5 percent in the energy of the current. The apparatus is suitable for one or the other method. I am not producing radiation with my system; I am suppressing electromagnetic waves. In my system, you should free yourself of the idea that there is radiation, that the energy is radiated. It is not radiated; it is conserved.”

“Nikola Tesla On His Works With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, and Transmission of Power.”Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, Colorado, 2002.

Regular

Nikola Tesla was asked how long would it take for the transmission of energy, by his system, to travel around the world?

“The exact time is, according to my measurements, 43-1000 of a second, which is a speed about 50 per cent greater than that of light.

“The impulse starts from my magnifying transmitter with infinite speed, slows first rapidly and then at a lesser rate until, when it has penetrated to a distance of 6000 miles from the transmitter, it proceeds with approximately the speed of light. From there on it accelerates, first slowly and then more rapidly, and reaches the opposite point of the globe again with infinite speed only to rebound and pass through the same phases on its way back to the transmitter.

“This movement of electricity through the Earth, which takes place strictly in accordance with a mathematical law, and enables a great number of accurate measurements and determinations to be made, which are of immense practical and scientific value.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Nikola Tesla For The First Time Describes His New System For Supplying Wireless Power To Run All The Earth’s Industries.” By Marcel Roland. New York American, September 3, 1911.

Regular

Motion Through the Ether

Using a novel interferometer, the author claims to have demonstrated the existence of the ether and to have disproved the principle of Relativity.

Electronic and Wireless World, May 1989.

Conducted by American physicist E.W. SILVERTOOTH

The famous Michelson-Morley experiment failed to detect our translational motion through the ether. It did not establish that the speed of light was referred to the observer moving with the apparatus. What it did was to prove that the average velocity of light for a round trip between a beam splitter and a mirror was independent of motion through space. The author supposed that the one-way speed of light, or more specifically its wavelength, did depend upon that motion, but in away that satisfied the exact null condition of the Michelson-Morley result.

However, the Sagnac experiment, as embodied in the ring laser gyros now used in navigational applications, showed that if a light ray travels one way around a circuit, and its travel time is compared with that of a light ray going the other way around the circuit, the rotation of the apparatus is detectable by optical interferometry. Here the result is just as if there is an ether and the speed of light is referred to that ether.

Readers will have great difficulty finding a book on Relativity that even discusses the Sagnac experiment or the later experiment by Michelson and Gale that detected the Earth’s rotation.

In the modern version of the Sagnac experiment a single laser divides its light rays and sends them around a loop in opposite directions, but the resulting standing waves are not locked to the mirror surfaces as they are in the Michelson-Morley experiment.

It was my assumption that the different wavelengths presented by rays moving in opposite directions along that path would allow a detector to sense a modulation or displacement of the standing wave system along the common ray path. The secret was to move the detector or the optical system along a linear path, rather than rotate the optical apparatus, as in the Sagnac experiment. A little analysis showed that such effects would exhibit a linear first-order dependence on v/c and that the detector would need to scan through a distance that was inversely proportional to v/c in order to cycle through a sequence of that standing wave pattern.

This was exactly what I found when the experimentwas performed.

THE STANDING-WAVE SENSOR

The one-beam interferometer or standing wave sensor consists of a photomultiplier tube conlprising two optically flat windows, with a semitransparent photocathode of 50nm thickness deposited on the inner surface of one window. The tube also con- tains a six-stage annular dynode assembly such that a collimated laser beam can pass through the tube.

In the application described in reference 1 the beam was reflected back on itself by a mirror to set up standing waves. The performance of the wave sensor was tested by incorporating a tiltable phase-shifter between the sensor and the mirror. This provided an adjustable displacement of the standing wave relative to the sensor. The object of the test was to measure the effective thickness of the photosensitive surface, to estimate the precision available from the sensor for making measurements on standing waves. Signal-to-noise ratio for the photocathode when positioned at an antinode compared with that at a node was measured as approximately 20,000 to 1. This was shown to correspond to detection of photoelectrons in the 50nm thickness of the photocathode, which assured us that position measurement within a standing wave could be made to within 1% of the laser wavelength.

Three such wave sensors were fabricated at Syracuse, New York, by the General Electric Company of the USA from standard parts of image orthicons. For this experiment, the sensorwas connected asshown in the arrangement of Fig.1.

If we write the wavelength of light moving one way as λ1 and the wavelength of light moving the oppositeway as λ2, then

(λ1 – λ2)/λ=λ/Δ

where λ is the nominal wavelength of the laser output and Δ is the displacement distance that was measured as corresponding to a phase reversal in the standing wave oscillations. In a typical measurement Δ as defined in the equation above was 0.025cm at its minimum; and since the nominal laser wavelength λ was 0.63μm, and the wavelengths depending upon the spatial orientation were λ1 = λ(1+v/c) and λ2=λ(1-v/c), it is clear that the maximum value of v is given by 2v/c = (0.000063)/(0.025) = 0.00252.

Since c is 300,000 km/s this gives v as 378km/s on the day when this particular test was performed. The axis of the photodetector making the linear scan through the standing wave was directed towards the constellation Leo when this maximum value of v was registered. Six hours before and after this event the displacement of the detector revealed 110 phase changes, meaning that the photodetector was then being displaced perpendicular to its motion relative to the ether.

The experiment has been repeated in a variety of configurations over the past several years. Values of Δ measured have all ranged within ±5% of the cited value. The micrometer is graduated in increments of 0.0025 millimetres. However, a micrometer drive is too coarse to set the interferometer on a fringe peak. This is accomplished by means of a third piezo actuator supplied from a DC source through a ten-turn potentiometer which provides conveniently the finesse forsetting on afringe peak.

Since the author first disclosed this discovery there has been a great deal of effort by a number of individuals in different countries, including USA, West Germany, UK, Italy, France and Austria, all aimed at theorizing as to why the experiment works, or why it should not work.

The author, however, declines in this article to go into the mathematical argument that underlies the theory involved, simply because that itself becomes a topic of debate and it tends to detract from the basic experimental fact that appears in the measurement.

Further reading:

1. E.W. Silvertooth and S.F. Jacobs, Applied

Optics. vol.22, 1274, 1983.

2. E.W. Silvertooth, Nature, vol. 322,590, 1986.

3. E.W. Silvertooth, Speculations in Science and Technology, vol. 10, 3, 1987.

4. B.A. Manning, Physics Essays vol. 1N04, 1988.

5. E.W. Silvertooth, Letters, Electronics. Wireless World, June 1988 p.542.

6. L. Essen, Electronics and Wireless World, February 1988, p.126.

7. L. Essen, Wireless World, October 1978, p.44.

Regular

“The scientists from Franklin to Morse were clear thinkers and did not produce erroneous theories. The scientists of today think deeply instead of clearly. One must be sane to think clearly, but one can think deeply and be quite insane.

"Today’s scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Radio Power Will Revolutionize The World.” By Alfred Albelli. Modern Mechanix, July, 1934.

Regular

*Nikola Tesla’s remarkable experiments with wireless lamps and vacuum tubes shown before the Franklin Institute and the National Electric Light Association in 1893*

“These were the most striking results I showed in the transmission of energy… You see how far I have gone into the mastery of electrical vibrations in 1893. I stand here [Fig. 190] in the hall, holding a lamp in my hand, and the energy transmitted lights it. Here again [Fig. 191] I hold a phosphorescent bulb in my hand, and here [Fig. 192] a vacuum tube.

"These experiments, I remember, were made in St. Louis. There was a hall with 6,000 or 7,000 people. When I explained how I had shown a phosphorescent bulb to Lord Kelvin in England, and told them that the bulb was going to spring into light, and the current was turned on and it did burst into light, there was a stampede in the to upper galleries and they all rushed out. They thought it was some part of the devil’s work, and ran out. That was the way my experiments were received.”

–Nikola Tesla

(Tesla explaining his wireless art in a pre-hearing interview with his legal counsel in 1916 to protect his radio patents from the Guglielmo Marconi and the Marconi Company.)

“Nikola Tesla On His Works With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, and Transmission of Power.” Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, Colorado, 2002.

Regular

The mind is sharper and keener in seclusion and uninterrupted solitude. No big laboratory is needed in which to think. Originality thrives in seclusion free of outside influences beating upon us to cripple the creative mind. Be alone, that is the secret of invention; be alone, that is when ideas are born. That is why many of the earthly miracles have had their genesis in humble surroundings.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Tesla Sees Evidence Radio and Light Are Sound.” New York Times, April 8th, 1934.

Regular

“TESLA SEES EVIDENCE RADIO AND LIGHT ARE SOUND.”

New York Times, April 8th, 1934.

An Inventor’s Seasoned Ideas

Nikola Tesla, Pointing to ‘Grievous Errors’ of the Past, Explains Radio as He Sees It at Age of 77 — He Expects Television

By Orrin E. Dunlap Jr.

A tall, lean inventor in a cut-away walked into his skyscraper parlor thirty-three floors above the sidewalks of New York, laid his black derby on the table, opened the window and then was ready to talk about radio’s past, present and future. He was Nikola Tesla, the inventor whose discovery of the rotary magnetic field made possible the alternating-current motor. He described a system of wireless transmission of energy in 1892.

Seven milestones beyond three-score and ten, this electrical wizard, who came to America in 1884, looked back across the years, recalled where theorists often chose wrong paths at the crossroads of science and then turned his thoughts to the future in which television lurks.

A Spectacle That Frightens.

There is something frightening about the universe when we consider that only our senses of sound and sight make it beautiful,” said Mr. Tesla as his furrowed brow indicated he is puzzled with its destiny. “Just think, the universe is darker than the darkest ink; colder than the coldest ice and more silent than a silent tomb, with all the bodies rushing through it at terrific speeds. What an awe-inspiring picture, isn’t it? Yet it is our brain that gives merely a physical impression. Sight and sound are the only avenues through which we can perceive it all. Often I have wondered if there is a third sense which we have failed to discover. I’m afraid not,” he said after some hesitation in thought.

Looking back to the mauve decade, to the turn of the century when the world was being thrilled with new ideas and discoveries, Mr. Tesla observes a vast change in the art of invention. Man, he finds, in this streamline era of speed, has little chance to think.

Fruits of Seclusion.

The big, modern research laboratories are but the incubators of ideas as he has watched them function. Seldom, if ever, he explains, has an original idea of any consequence been born in an elaborate laboratory. The egg of science is laid in the nest of solitude. True, it may later be incubated, hatched and nursed in the million-dollar laboratory.

It is providential that the youth or man of inventive mind is not ‘blessed’ with a million dollars,” said Mr. Tesla. “He would find it difficult to think. The mind is sharper and keener in seclusion and uninterrupted solitude. No big laboratory is needed in which to think. Originality thrives in seclusion free of outside influences beating upon us to cripple the creative mind. Be alone, that is the secret of invention; be alone, that is when ideas are born. That is why many of the earthly miracles have had their genesis in humble surroundings.”

Radio experimenters of this age are following ancient theories, Mr. Tesla believes, and he warns that progress will be more rapid when they discard the old and adopt new ideas. His directions for getting on the right track of radio, television, power transmission by wireless and sundry other branches of science follow:

“The fascination of the electro-magnetic theory of light, advanced by Maxwell and subsequently experimentally investigated by Hertz, was so great that even now, although controverted, the scientific minds are under its sway. This theory supposed the existence of a medium which was solid, yet permitted bodies to pass through it without resistance; tenuous beyond conception, and yet, according to some, one thousand times denser than platinum. According to our conceptions of mechanical principles and ages of experience, such a medium was absolutely impossible. Nevertheless, light was considered essentially a phenomenon bound up in that kind of a medium; namely, one capable of transmitting transverse vibrations lite a solid.”

A Question Tesla Asked.

It is true,” said Mr. Tesla, “that many scientific minds envisaged the theory of a gaseous ether, but it was rejected again and again because in such a medium longitudinal waves would be propagated with infinite velocity. Lord Kelvin conceived the so-called contractile ether, possessing properties which would result in a finite velocity of longitudinal waves. In 1885, however, an academic dissertation was published by Professor De Volson Wood, an American, at a Hoboken institution, which dealt with a gaseous ether in which the elasticity, density and specific heat were determined with rare academic elegance. But, so far, everything pertaining to the subject was purely theoretical.

“What, then, can light be if it is not a transverse vibration?” That was the question he asked himself and set out to find the answer.

I consider this extremely important,” said Mr. Tesla. “Light cannot be anything else but a longitudinal disturbance in the ether, involving alternate compressions and rarefactions. In other words, light can be nothing else than a sound wave in the ether.

“This appears clearly,” Mr. Tesla explained, “if it is first realized that, there being no Maxwellian ether, there can be no transverse oscillation in the medium. The Newtonian theory, he believes, is in error, because it falls entirely in not being able to explain how a small candle can project particles with the same speed as the blazing sun, which has an immensely higher temperature.”

We have made sure by experiment,” said Mr. Tesla, “that light propagates with the same velocity irrespective of the character of the source. Such constancy of velocity can only be explained by assuming that it is dependent solely on the physical properties of the medium, especially density and elastic force.“

Micro-Wave Possibilities.

Coming now to the wireless waves, it is still true that they are of the same character as light waves, only they are not transversal but longitudinal. As a matter of fact, radio transmitters emit nothing else but sound waves in the ether, and if the experts will realize this they will find it very much easier to explain the curious observations made in the application of these waves.

It being a fact that radio waves are essentially like sound waves in the air, it is evident that the shorter the waves the more penetrative they would be. In 1899 I produced electromagnetic waves from one to two millimeters long and observed their actions at a distance. There has been a great hope expressed by various workers that introduction of these waves will have a revolutionary effect, but I am not sharing the opinion. They will be used, of course, but to a very limited extent. It is manifest that applications of the very short waves will not produce any appreciable effect upon the wireless art.”

“Errors” Retard Wireless Power.

What about the possibilities of power transmission by wireless? the inquirer said.

Here again Mr. Tesla blames “a strange misconception of the experts” and “grievous errors” for retarding the idea. He believes that when it is accomplished, the power will travel on long waves and not on the wings of “uneconomically produced” short waves. He said he could vouch that the scheme of wireless power transmission is entirely practical.

The application of short waves for power purposes,” said Mr. Tesla, “involves complicated and expensive apparatus for rectification or frequency transformation, which would make any serious attempt to carry out a project of this kind much more difficult from an economical point of view.“

When will television come around the corner? he was asked.

It ought to be with us soon, and some day it will be on a par of perfection with broadcasting of music.” Then with a circular sweep of his arm and added, “There will be large pictures thrown on the wall.”

Regular

A Genius Mind Ahead of His Time

Although Nikola Tesla never accomplished some of his biggest dreams for the future, he still brought the world many wonderful inventions and discoveries. Stated in chronological order, some of the more important ones are: The rotating magnetic field induction motor and alternating current system of power transmission, 1882-1888; Tesla coil and oscillation transformer, 1889-1892; electro-mechanical isochronous oscillators, 1890-1892; Tesla wireless system, 1891-1893; electron tubes, 1892-1893; theory of radioactivity, 1896-1898; high-potential vacuum tubes, 1896-1898; telautomatics, 1897-1899; discovery of terrestrial resonance and law of propagation of conduction currents through the globe, 1899; high-potential wireless transmitter, 1899; art of transmitting energy by stationary terrestrial waves, 1906; speedometers on new principles, means for lightning protection, types of steam and gas turbines, pressure and vacuum pumps and other apparatus, 1916-1926.

Regular

drnikolatesla:

Nikola Tesla aka “Mr. π / 2 ( c )”

v = π / 2 ( c )

v = average velocity of Tesla’s electrical current round earth (miles per second)

(you can plug in any metric and get same results)

c = speed of light (miles per second)

v = π / 2 (186,300)

v = 1.57 (186,300)

v = 292,491

While experimenting in Colorado Springs at the end of 1899, Nikola Tesla sent electrical currents around the earth faster than the speed of light. In his patent No. 787,412, filed May 16, 1900, titled the “Art of Transmitting Wireless Electrical Energy Through the Natural Mediums,” Tesla showed that the current of his transmitter passed over and around the earth’s surface with a speed of 292,815 miles per second. In his patent he says:

“The most essential requirement is that irrespective of frequency the wave or wave-train should continue for a certain period of time, which I have estimated to be not less than one-twelfth or probably 0.08484 of a second and which is taken in passing to and returning from the region diametrically opposite the pole over the earth’s surface with a mean velocity of about 471,240 kilometers per second [(292,815 miles per second)].”

Tesla held, however, that our present “wireless” technology (ex. Internet, WiFi, radio, etc.) are not true Hertzian waves, but act more like sound waves. They travel close to the speed of light and are purely radiation while his energy transmission through the earth gives off no radiation. Also, his energy is completely recoverable while other wireless transmissions are not. This is how Tesla theorized that he could send any amount of electrical energy through the earth to power the world’s machinery and technology.

So… Mr. “π / 2 ( c )” was, and still is a mind far ahead of his time!

🐐

Regular

drnikolatesla:

Despite what the internet and history books tell us… Nikola Tesla was the first to:

  1. Invent an commutatorless alternating current motor which 90 percent of our electrical power relies on today.
  2. Invent neon light.
  3. Prove wireless power.
  4. Explain the harms of x-rays.
  5. Discover the electron (over 7 years before J. J. Thomson)
  6. Invent radio (Marconi was a hack).
  7. Discover radioactivity (Marie Curie was over a year behind) .
  8. Discover cosmic rays (23 years before Victor Hess) .
  9. Invent remote control.
  10. Prove the existence of stationary waves.
  11. Send a current around earth faster than the speed of light in experiments at Colorado Springs in 1899 (yes… this is a fact fellow science nerds).
  12. Explain the photoelectric effect (4 years before Einstein).
  13. Discover the neutron.
  14. Invent a particle beam weapon.

If you’re new to this blog and find yourself triggered by this post because there’s no sources well these topics are not new to this blog and I have provided many sources to prove these facts throughout the many years I’ve ran this page. Just do more research and stop getting butt hurt over a Tumblr post 😂😂😂