Category: chemistry

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drnikolatesla:

Nikola Tesla Won 8 Nobel Prizes For His Work And Discoveries.

No He Didn’t… These People Did Instead…

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Physics, 1901: Wilhelm Roentgan was awarded the first Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of X-Rays on November 8, 1895. Not many know this but Tesla was working with X-Rays prior to Roentgen in 1892, but used the term “radiant matter” instead. He conducted numerous experiments and some of the first imaging, which he called “shadowgraphs,” using these unknown rays in his laboratory before its destruction by fire on March 13, 1895. Tesla was also the first to warn the scientific world on the harms of these rays if not used properly.

Marie Curie, Pierre Curie and Antoine Henri Becquerel, Physics/Chemistry, 1903/1911: The three shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery and work on radioactivity in 1898. Madame Curie won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of radium and polonium, also in 1898. Tesla discovered radioactivity in experiments with X-Rays in 1896, and published many articles on the subject in scientific periodicals prior to the three.

Joseph John Thomson, Physics, 1906: Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the electron in 1897. Tesla originally called electrons “matter not further decomposable” in his experiments with radiant energy in 1896, but his discovery of the electron goes back as far as 1891 in a debate he and Thomson had about Tesla’s experiments with alternating currents of high frequency. Tesla claimed that his experiments proved the existence of charged particles, or “small charged balls.” Thomson denied Tesla’s claim of verifying these particles until witnessing Tesla’s experiments and demonstrations given in a lecture before the Institute of Electrical Engineers at London in 1892. Thomson then adapted to Tesla’s methods of high frequency and was able to use equipment which allowed him to produce the required frequencies to investigate and establish his electron discovery. 

Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun, Physics, 1909: Both shared the Nobel Prize for their work and development of radio. Marconi is known for proving radio transmission by sending a radio signal in Italy in 1895, but it is a fact that he used Tesla’s work to establish his discovery. Tesla invented the “Tesla Coil” in 1891, which Marconi’s inventions relied on, and the inventor proved radio transmission in lectures given throughout 1893, sending electromagnetic waves to light wireless lamps. Tesla filed his own basic radio patent applications in 1897, which were granted in 1900. Marconi’s first patent application in the U.S. was filed on November 10, 1900, but was turned down. Marconi’s revised applications over the next three years were repeatedly rejected because of the priority of Tesla and other inventors, but was finally able to bypass Tesla’s work and secure his own. After Tesla’s death in 1943, the U.S. Supreme Court made Marconi’s patents invalid again and recognized Tesla as the true inventor of radio.

Charles Glover Barkla, Physics, 1917: Barkla was awarded the prize for his work with Rontgen radiation and the characteristics of these X-rays and their secondary elements and effects. He was educated by J. J. Thomson. Again, Tesla worked with and explained these radiations in full detail throughout the late 1890s, showing that the source of X-rays was the site of first impact of electrons within the bulbs. He even investigated reflected X-rays and their characteristics such as Barkla.

Albert Einstein, Physics, 1921: Einstein was awarded the prize for his theoretical theories which are still praised today, and also his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. In 1905, Einstein considered that light has a nature of both a wave and a particle. This lead to the development of “photons,” or photo electrons, which gave light a wave-particle duality. Now it must be noted that Nikola Tesla wasn’t just a theoretical physicist like Einstein, but was an experimental physicist as well. In 1896, Nikola Tesla was the first to propose that energy had both particle-like and wavelike properties in experiments with radiant energy. He set up targets to shoot his cathode rays at which upon reflection, projected particles, or vibrations of extremely high frequencies. Nikola Tesla preceded Einstein by 4 years on the photoelectric effect publishing a patent titled “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy.” filed in 1901, based off his experiments with radiant energy. He had a far better understanding on the matter than Einstein, mostly because he actually experimented with the issue to prove his theories.

James Chadwick, Physics, 1935: Awarded the prize for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. Tesla’s discovery of neutrons goes back to his work with cosmic rays, again in 1896, which are mentioned in the next bit. He investigated and discovered that cosmic rays shower down on us 24/7, and that they are small particles which carry so small a charge that we are justified in calling them neutrons. He measured some neutrons from distance stars, like Antares, which traveled at velocities exceeding that of light. Tesla succeeded in developing a motive device that operated off these cosmic rays.

Victor Franz Hess, Physics, 1936: Hess won the Prize for his discovery of the cosmic rays in 1919. Tesla predated him 23 years publishing a treatise in an electrical review on cosmic rays in 1896. Tesla’s knowledge on the matter surpasses even today’s understanding of cosmic rays.

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Nikola Tesla Won 8 Nobel Prizes For His Work And Discoveries.

No He Didn’t… These People Did Instead…

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Physics, 1901: Wilhelm Roentgan was awarded the first Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of X-Rays on November 8, 1895. Not many know this but Tesla was working with X-Rays prior to Roentgen in 1892, but used the term “radiant matter” instead. He conducted numerous experiments and some of the first imaging, which he called “shadowgraphs,” using these unknown rays in his laboratory before its destruction by fire on March 13, 1895. Tesla was also the first to warn the scientific world on the harms of these rays if not used properly.

Marie Curie, Pierre Curie and Antoine Henri Becquerel, Physics/Chemistry, 1903/1911: The three shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery and work on radioactivity in 1898. Madame Curie won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of radium and polonium, also in 1898. Tesla discovered radioactivity in experiments with X-Rays in 1896, and published many articles on the subject in scientific periodicals prior to the three.

Joseph John Thomson, Physics, 1906: Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the electron in 1897. Tesla originally called electrons “matter not further decomposable” in his experiments with radiant energy in 1896, but his discovery of the electron goes back as far as 1891 in a debate he and Thomson had about Tesla’s experiments with alternating currents of high frequency. Tesla claimed that his experiments proved the existence of charged particles, or “small charged balls.” Thomson denied Tesla’s claim of verifying these particles until witnessing Tesla’s experiments and demonstrations given in a lecture before the Institute of Electrical Engineers at London in 1892. Thomson then adapted to Tesla’s methods of high frequency and was able to use equipment which allowed him to produce the required frequencies to investigate and establish his electron discovery. 

Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun, Physics, 1909: Both shared the Nobel Prize for their work and development of radio. Marconi is known for proving radio transmission by sending a radio signal in Italy in 1895, but it is a fact that he used Tesla’s work to establish his discovery. Tesla invented the “Tesla Coil” in 1891, which Marconi’s inventions relied on, and the inventor proved radio transmission in lectures given throughout 1893, sending electromagnetic waves to light wireless lamps. Tesla filed his own basic radio patent applications in 1897, which were granted in 1900. Marconi’s first patent application in the U.S. was filed on November 10, 1900, but was turned down. Marconi’s revised applications over the next three years were repeatedly rejected because of the priority of Tesla and other inventors, but was finally able to bypass Tesla’s work and secure his own. After Tesla’s death in 1943, the U.S. Supreme Court made Marconi’s patents invalid again and recognized Tesla as the true inventor of radio.

Charles Glover Barkla, Physics, 1917: Barkla was awarded the prize for his work with Rontgen radiation and the characteristics of these X-rays and their secondary elements and effects. He was educated by J. J. Thomson. Again, Tesla worked with and explained these radiations in full detail throughout the late 1890s, showing that the source of X-rays was the site of first impact of electrons within the bulbs. He even investigated reflected X-rays and their characteristics such as Barkla.

Albert Einstein, Physics, 1921: Einstein was awarded the prize for his theoretical theories which are still praised today, and also his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. In 1905, Einstein considered that light has a nature of both a wave and a particle. This lead to the development of “photons,” or photo electrons, which gave light a wave-particle duality. Now it must be noted that Nikola Tesla wasn’t just a theoretical physicist like Einstein, but was an experimental physicist as well. In 1896, Nikola Tesla was the first to propose that energy had both particle-like and wavelike properties in experiments with radiant energy. He set up targets to shoot his cathode rays at which upon reflection, projected particles, or vibrations of extremely high frequencies. Nikola Tesla preceded Einstein by 4 years on the photoelectric effect publishing a patent titled “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy.” filed in 1901, based off his experiments with radiant energy. He had a far better understanding on the matter than Einstein, mostly because he actually experimented with the issue to prove his theories.

James Chadwick, Physics, 1935: Awarded the prize for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. Tesla’s discovery of neutrons goes back to his work with cosmic rays, again in 1896, which are mentioned in the next bit. He investigated and discovered that cosmic rays shower down on us 24/7, and that they are small particles which carry so small a charge that we are justified in calling them neutrons. He measured some neutrons from distance stars, like Antares, which traveled at velocities exceeding that of light. Tesla succeeded in developing a motive device that operated off these cosmic rays.

Victor Franz Hess, Physics, 1936: Hess won the Prize for his discovery of the cosmic rays in 1919. Tesla predated him 23 years publishing a treatise in an electrical review on cosmic rays in 1896. Tesla’s knowledge on the matter surpasses even today’s understanding of cosmic rays.

“The nightmare goes on!”

“The nightmare goes on!”

Chemistry teacher, resuming things studied in the previous years

Photo

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drnikolatesla: “If there is energy within the…

drnikolatesla:

“If there is energy within the substance it can only come from without. This truth was so manifest to me that I expressed it in the following axiom: ‘There is no energy in matter except that absorbed from the medium…’ If all energy is supplied to matter from without then this all important function must be performed by the medium.”

“When radio-active rays were discovered their investigators believed them to be due to liberation of atomic energy in the form of waves. This being impossible in the light of the preceding I concluded that they were produced by some external disturbance and composed of electrified particles. My theory was not seriously taken although it appeared simple and plausible. Suppose that bullets are fired against a wall. Where a missile strikes the material is crushed and spatters in all directions radial from the place of impact. In this example it is perfectly clear that the energy of the flying pieces can only be derived from that of the bullets. But in manifestation of radio-activity no such proof could be advanced and it was, therefore, of the first importance to demonstrate experimentally the existence of this miraculous disturbance in the medium. I was rewarded in these efforts with quick success largely because of the efficient method I adopted which consisted in deriving from a great mass of air, ionized by the disturbance, a current, storing its energy in a condenser and discharging the same through an indicating device. This plan did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope first employed and was described by me in articles and patents from 1900 to 1905. It was logical to expect, judging from the behavior of known radiations, that the chief source of the new rays would be the sun, but this supposition was contradicted by observations and theoretical considerations which disclosed some surprising facts in this connection.

“Light and heat rays are absorbed in their passage through a medium in a certain proportion to its density. The ether, although the most tenuous of all substances, is no exception to this rule.  Its density has been first estimated by Lord Kelvin and conformably to his finding a column of one square centimeter cross section and of a length such that light, traveling at a rate of three hundred thousands kilometers per second, would require one year to traverse it, should weigh 4.8 grams. This is just about the weight of a prism of ordinary glass of the same cross section and two centimeters length which, therefore, may be assumed as the equivalent of the ether column in absorption. A column of the ether one thousand times longer would thus absorb as much light as twenty meters of glass.  However, there are suns at distances of many thousands of light years and it is evident that virtually no light from them can reach the earth. But if these suns emit rays immensely more penetrative than those of light they will be slightly dimmed and so the aggregate amount of radiations pouring upon the earth from all sides will be overwhelmingly greater than that supplied to it by our luminary. If light and heat rays would be as penetrative as the cosmic, so fierce would be the perpetual glare and so scorching the heat that life on this and other planets could not exist.

“Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.

“It has been suggested that the cosmic rays are electrons or that they are the result of creation of new matter in the interstellar deserts. These views are too fantastic to be even for a moment seriously considered. They are natural outcroppings of this age of deep but unrational thinking, of impossible theories, the latest of which might, perhaps, deal with the curvature of time. What this world of ours would be if time were curved…“

–Nikola Tesla

“The Eternal Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays.” October 13, 1932.

Ahead of our time!

Many chemical reactions, and the flows that ac…

Many chemical reactions, and the flows that accompany them, are invisible to the human eye. But in infrared wavelengths those same events are vibrant and energetic. In this video from the Beauty of Science group, various chemical reactions are shown in visible and IR wavelengths, revealing very different perspectives on the same thing. Many of the reactions are exothermic, meaning that they produce heat as they occur. Because of this the thermal imaging shows where the most intense reaction is occurring at a given time. Other areas gradually darken as diffusion and flow move and dilute the heat energy released. (Video and image credit: Beauty of Science, source)

The Olympic Charter declares that winter sport…

The Olympic Charter declares that winter sports must be practiced on snow or ice. Both are frozen forms of water, which despite its ubiquity, is one of the strangest substances around. In addition to its tendency to expand as it freezes, ice is inherently slippery, and no one’s quite certain yet why.

Most people have heard the theory that ice skating is possible due to high pressure melting the ice beneath the narrow blade. But realistically, pressure melting should only work for ice down to about -3.5 degrees Celsius. By contrast, the ideal temperatures for figure skating and ice hockey are -5.5 and -9 degrees Celsius, respectively. Melting due to friction might account for slipperiness a few more degrees below freezing, but it doesn’t explain why ice can be slippery when you’re just standing on it.

When physicist Michael Faraday suggested in 1850 that ice has a thin liquid-like layer at its surface, many discounted the theory. But modern experimental techniques and computer simulations have shown that Faraday was right. Ice has a liquid-like layer some 1 to 100 nanometers thick at its surface, and this layer persists to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. The process is known as surface pre-melting and what causes it is an area of active research for physical chemists. Current theories include hydrogen bonding and even quantum mechanical effects. (Image credit: AP Photo/B. Armangue; research credit: R. Rosenberg; Y. Li and G. Somorjai; F. Paesani and G. Voth)

This opens FYFD’s two-week series on the physics and fluid dynamics of the Winter Olympics. Stay tuned! – Nicole

Iron reacts with Copper Sulphate

Iron reacts with Copper Sulphate

Box floating on Sulphur Hexafloride because it…

Box floating on Sulphur Hexafloride because it’s denser then air and invisible

A near frozen liquid water when dropped on ice…

A near frozen liquid water when dropped on ice freezes