Category: albert einstein

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Motion Through the Ether

Using a novel interferometer, the author claims to have demonstrated the existence of the ether and to have disproved the principle of Relativity.

Electronic and Wireless World, May 1989.

Conducted by American physicist E.W. SILVERTOOTH

The famous Michelson-Morley experiment failed to detect our translational motion through the ether. It did not establish that the speed of light was referred to the observer moving with the apparatus. What it did was to prove that the average velocity of light for a round trip between a beam splitter and a mirror was independent of motion through space. The author supposed that the one-way speed of light, or more specifically its wavelength, did depend upon that motion, but in away that satisfied the exact null condition of the Michelson-Morley result.

However, the Sagnac experiment, as embodied in the ring laser gyros now used in navigational applications, showed that if a light ray travels one way around a circuit, and its travel time is compared with that of a light ray going the other way around the circuit, the rotation of the apparatus is detectable by optical interferometry. Here the result is just as if there is an ether and the speed of light is referred to that ether.

Readers will have great difficulty finding a book on Relativity that even discusses the Sagnac experiment or the later experiment by Michelson and Gale that detected the Earth’s rotation.

In the modern version of the Sagnac experiment a single laser divides its light rays and sends them around a loop in opposite directions, but the resulting standing waves are not locked to the mirror surfaces as they are in the Michelson-Morley experiment.

It was my assumption that the different wavelengths presented by rays moving in opposite directions along that path would allow a detector to sense a modulation or displacement of the standing wave system along the common ray path. The secret was to move the detector or the optical system along a linear path, rather than rotate the optical apparatus, as in the Sagnac experiment. A little analysis showed that such effects would exhibit a linear first-order dependence on v/c and that the detector would need to scan through a distance that was inversely proportional to v/c in order to cycle through a sequence of that standing wave pattern.

This was exactly what I found when the experimentwas performed.

THE STANDING-WAVE SENSOR

The one-beam interferometer or standing wave sensor consists of a photomultiplier tube conlprising two optically flat windows, with a semitransparent photocathode of 50nm thickness deposited on the inner surface of one window. The tube also con- tains a six-stage annular dynode assembly such that a collimated laser beam can pass through the tube.

In the application described in reference 1 the beam was reflected back on itself by a mirror to set up standing waves. The performance of the wave sensor was tested by incorporating a tiltable phase-shifter between the sensor and the mirror. This provided an adjustable displacement of the standing wave relative to the sensor. The object of the test was to measure the effective thickness of the photosensitive surface, to estimate the precision available from the sensor for making measurements on standing waves. Signal-to-noise ratio for the photocathode when positioned at an antinode compared with that at a node was measured as approximately 20,000 to 1. This was shown to correspond to detection of photoelectrons in the 50nm thickness of the photocathode, which assured us that position measurement within a standing wave could be made to within 1% of the laser wavelength.

Three such wave sensors were fabricated at Syracuse, New York, by the General Electric Company of the USA from standard parts of image orthicons. For this experiment, the sensorwas connected asshown in the arrangement of Fig.1.

If we write the wavelength of light moving one way as 位1 and the wavelength of light moving the oppositeway as 位2, then

(位1 – 位2)/位=位/螖

where 位 is the nominal wavelength of the laser output and 螖 is the displacement distance that was measured as corresponding to a phase reversal in the standing wave oscillations. In a typical measurement 螖 as defined in the equation above was 0.025cm at its minimum; and since the nominal laser wavelength 位 was 0.63渭m, and the wavelengths depending upon the spatial orientation were 位1 = 位(1+v/c) and 位2=位(1-v/c), it is clear that the maximum value of v is given by 2v/c = (0.000063)/(0.025) = 0.00252.

Since c is 300,000 km/s this gives v as 378km/s on the day when this particular test was performed. The axis of the photodetector making the linear scan through the standing wave was directed towards the constellation Leo when this maximum value of v was registered. Six hours before and after this event the displacement of the detector revealed 110 phase changes, meaning that the photodetector was then being displaced perpendicular to its motion relative to the ether.

The experiment has been repeated in a variety of configurations over the past several years. Values of 螖 measured have all ranged within 卤5% of the cited value. The micrometer is graduated in increments of 0.0025 millimetres. However, a micrometer drive is too coarse to set the interferometer on a fringe peak. This is accomplished by means of a third piezo actuator supplied from a DC source through a ten-turn potentiometer which provides conveniently the finesse forsetting on afringe peak.

Since the author first disclosed this discovery there has been a great deal of effort by a number of individuals in different countries, including USA, West Germany, UK, Italy, France and Austria, all aimed at theorizing as to why the experiment works, or why it should not work.

The author, however, declines in this article to go into the mathematical argument that underlies the theory involved, simply because that itself becomes a topic of debate and it tends to detract from the basic experimental fact that appears in the measurement.

Further reading:

1. E.W. Silvertooth and S.F. Jacobs, Applied

Optics. vol.22, 1274, 1983.

2. E.W. Silvertooth, Nature, vol. 322,590, 1986.

3. E.W. Silvertooth, Speculations in Science and Technology, vol. 10, 3, 1987.

4. B.A. Manning, Physics Essays vol. 1N04, 1988.

5. E.W. Silvertooth, Letters, Electronics. Wireless World, June 1988 p.542.

6. L. Essen, Electronics and Wireless World, February 1988, p.126.

7. L. Essen, Wireless World, October 1978, p.44.

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drnikolatesla:

Why Was Nikola Tesla One Of Albert Einstein鈥檚 Biggest Critics?

We know that Albert Einstein鈥檚 Theory鈥 of Special Relativity says that the kinetic energy (e) of a body equals its mass (m) times the speed of light (c虏), or (e=mc虏). The equation expresses a theory that mass and energy are the same physical entity and can be changed into each other. It also asserts that speeds greater than 186,300 miles per second (speed of light) are impossible in the universe. It is literally one of the principal tenets of the theory; that the mass of a body increases with its speed, and would become infinite at the velocity of light. Hence, a greater velocity is impossible.

Nikola Tesla positively denied Einstein鈥檚 theory, not just because he rejected the idea of matter being convertible into energy, and energy into matter, or even the existence of space-time, but because he himself had measured speeds traveling faster than light in many experiments, observations and measurements, both qualitative and quantitative throughout his lifetime of research.

As far back as 1896, Tesla conducted experiments on cosmic rays where he measured cosmic ray velocities from the star Antares, which he measured to be聽fifty times聽greater than the speed of light, literally demolishing one of the basic pillars of the structure of relativity. Also, in 1899, he conducted and recorded numerous experiments at Colorado Springs where he sent electrical currents from his transmitter around earth and back to his receiver traveling at a mean velocity of聽292,815 miles per second. After these experiments, On April of 1900 he published a patent on this transmitter titled the 鈥Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Medium,鈥 which was just a play thing compared to his Magnifying Transmitter patented in 1914. Also, in June of 1900, he published an article in the Century Magazine titled 鈥The Problem of Increasing Human Energy,鈥 where he outlined his experiments in Colorado Springs and his plans for the future.

Whether you believe Tesla witnessed and measured such speeds or not, his statements should still be given due consideration. After all, both Tesla and Einstein were genius minds, but Einstein was merely a theoretical physicist who relied on abstract mathematics and other scientist鈥檚 work to prove his theories, while Tesla followed the scientific method like a religion and was solely dependent on actual experimentation to prove his. Nikola Tesla鈥檚 work and theories have yet to be proven wrong to this day and are beginning to resurface as present science and technology improves.

Anyways鈥 Here are 6 quotes from Tesla critiquing Einstein鈥檚 Theory of Relativity. Enjoy (((:

*Nikola Tesla reading James Clark Maxwell鈥檚 book, 鈥The Scientific Papers,鈥 in front of the spiral coil of his high-frequency transformer at East Houston St. 46, New York*

1. 鈥淲hat is 鈥榯hought鈥 in relativity, for example, is not science, but some kind of metaphysics based on abstract mathematical principles and conceptions which will be forever incomprehensible to beings like ourselves whose whole knowledge is derived from a three-dimensional world.鈥澛 鈥揘T 聽(鈥淕reat Scientific Discovery Impends.鈥澛Sunday Star. Washington D.C., May 17, 1931.)

2. We read a great deal about matter being changed into force and force being changed into matter by the cosmic rays. This is absurd. It is the same as saying that the body can be changed into the mind, and the mind into the body. We know that the mind is a functioning of the body, and in the same manner force is a function of matter. Without the body there can be no mind, without matter there can be no force. Einstein has for years developed formulas explaining the mechanism of the cosmos. In doing this he overlooked an important factor, namely the fact that some of the heavenly bodies are increasing in distance from the sun. This is the same as writing a business letter and forgetting the subject you wish to write about. In order to explain this phenomenon Einstein has invented the quantity 鈥渓ambda.鈥澛燤y theory of gravitation explains this phenomenon perfectly.鈥澛犫揘T聽聽(Tesla鈥檚 statement relating to force and matter, to Einstein鈥檚 theories, and Tesla鈥檚 own theory of gravitation. Courtesy of Nikola Tesla Papers. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University. April 15, 1932.)

3. 鈥淚 hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved, is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.鈥 鈥揘T聽(鈥淧ioneer Radio Engineer Gives Views On Power.鈥澛New York Herald Tribune, September 11, 1932.)

4. 鈥淸The Theory of Relativity] is a mass of errors and deceptive ideas violently opposed to the teachings of great men of science of the past and even to common sense. The theory wraps all these errors and fallacies and clothes them in magnificent mathematical garb which fascinates, dazzles and makes people blind to the underlying errors. The theory is like a beggar clothed in purple whom ignorant people take for a king. Its exponents are very brilliant men, but they are metaphysicists rather than scientists. Not a single one of the relativity propositions has been proved.鈥澛犫揘T(鈥淭esla, 79, Promises to Transmit Force.鈥澛New York Times, July 11, 1935.)

5. 鈥淭he kinetic and potential energy of a body is the result of motion and determined by the product of its mass and the square of velocity. Let the mass be reduced, the energy is diminished in the same proportion. If it be reduced to zero the energy is likewise zero for any finite velocity. In other words, it is absolutely impossible to convert mass into energy. It would be different if there were forces in nature capable of imparting to a mass infinite velocity. Then the product of zero mass with the square of infinite velocity would represent infinite energy. But we know that there are no such forces and the idea that mass is convertible into energy is rank nonsense鈥

鈥淎ccording to the relativists, space has a tendency to curvature owing to an inherent property or presence of celestial bodies. Granting a semblance of reality to this fantastic idea, it is still self-contradictory. Every action is accompanied by an equivalent reaction and the effects of the latter are directly opposite to those of the former. Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curvature of the same, it appears to my simple mind that the curved spaces must react on the bodies and, producing the opposite effects, straighten out the curves. Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible. But even if it existed it would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a field of force can account for them and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion. So are also all attempts to explain the workings of the universe without recognizing the existence of the ether and the indispensable function it plays in the phenomena.鈥 鈥揘T聽(鈥淒ynamic Theory Of Gravity.鈥 July 10, 1937. Prior to interviews with the press on his 81st birthday observance.)

6. 鈥淭he relativity theory, by the way, is much older than its present proponents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman聽Boskovic, the great philosopher, who, not withstanding other and multifold obligations, wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects. Boskovic dealt with relativity, including the so-called time-space continuum.鈥澛NT

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Tesla>Einstein

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“The聽Relativity Theory, by the way, is much older than its present proponents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman聽Boskovic, the great philosopher, who, not withstanding other and multifold obligations, wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects.聽Boskovic聽dealt with relativity, including the so-called time-space continuum.”

鈥擭ikola Tesla

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“The kinetic and potential energy of a body is the result of motion and determined by the product of its mass and the square of velocity. Let the mass be reduced, the energy is diminished in the same proportion. If it be reduced to zero the energy is likewise zero for any finite velocity. In other words, it is absolutely impossible to convert mass into energy. It would be different if there were forces in nature capable of imparting to a mass infinite velocity. Then the product of zero mass with the square of infinite velocity would represent infinite energy. But we know that there are no such forces and the idea that mass is convertible into energy is rank nonsense.”

鈥擭ikola Tesla.

鈥淒ynamic Theory of Gravity.鈥 July 10, 1937.

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Why Was Nikola Tesla One Of Albert Einstein鈥檚 Biggest Critics?

We know that Albert Einstein鈥檚 Theory鈥 of Special Relativity says that the kinetic energy (e) of a body equals its mass (m) times the speed of light (c虏), or (e=mc虏). The equation expresses a theory that mass and energy are the same physical entity and can be changed into each other. It also asserts that speeds greater than 186,300 miles per second (speed of light) are impossible in the universe. It is literally one of the principal tenets of the theory; that the mass of a body increases with its speed, and would become infinite at the velocity of light. Hence, a greater velocity is impossible.

Nikola Tesla positively denied Einstein鈥檚 theory, not just because he rejected the idea of matter being convertible into energy, and energy into matter, or even the existence of space-time, but because he himself had measured speeds traveling faster than light in many experiments, observations and measurements, both qualitative and quantitative.

As far back as 1896, Tesla conducted experiments on cosmic rays where he measured cosmic ray velocities from the star Antares, which he measured to be聽fifty times聽greater than the speed of light, literally demolishing one of the basic pillars of the structure of relativity. Also, in 1899, he conducted and recorded numerous experiments at Colorado Springs where he sent electrical currents from his transmitter around earth and back to his receiver traveling at a mean velocity of聽292,815 miles per second. After these experiments, On April of 1900 he published a patent on this transmitter titled the 鈥Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Medium,鈥 which was just a play thing compared to his Magnifying Transmitter patented in 1914. Also, in June of 1900, he published an article in the Century Magazine titled “The Problem of Increasing Human Energy,” where he outlined his experiments in Colorado Springs and his plans for the future.

Whether you believe Tesla witnessed and measured such speeds or not, his statements should still be given due consideration. After all, both Tesla and Einstein were very intelligent minds, but Einstein was a theoretical physicist who relied on abstract mathematics plus other genius mind’s work to prove his theories while Tesla was a true follower of the scientific method and was solely dependent on actual experimentation to prove his. Nikola Tesla鈥檚 work and theories have yet to be proven wrong to this day. That is a fact.

Anyways鈥 Here are 6 quotes from Tesla critiquing Einstein鈥檚 Theory of Relativity. Enjoy (((:

*Nikola Tesla reading James Clark Maxwell鈥檚 book, 鈥The Scientific Papers,鈥 in front of the spiral coil of his high-frequency transformer at East Houston St. 46, New York*

1. 鈥淲hat is 鈥榯hought鈥 in relativity, for example, is not science, but some kind of metaphysics based on abstract mathematical principles and conceptions which will be forever incomprehensible to beings like ourselves whose whole knowledge is derived from a three-dimensional world.鈥澛 鈥揘T 聽(鈥淕reat Scientific Discovery Impends.鈥澛Sunday Star. Washington D.C., May 17, 1931.)

2. We read a great deal about matter being changed into force and force being changed into matter by the cosmic rays. This is absurd. It is the same as saying that the body can be changed into the mind, and the mind into the body. We know that the mind is a functioning of the body, and in the same manner force is a function of matter. Without the body there can be no mind, without matter there can be no force. Einstein has for years developed formulas explaining the mechanism of the cosmos. In doing this he overlooked an important factor, namely the fact that some of the heavenly bodies are increasing in distance from the sun. This is the same as writing a business letter and forgetting the subject you wish to write about. In order to explain this phenomenon Einstein has invented the quantity 鈥渓ambda.鈥澛燤y theory of gravitation explains this phenomenon perfectly.鈥澛犫揘T聽聽(Tesla鈥檚 statement relating to force and matter, to Einstein鈥檚 theories, and Tesla鈥檚 own theory of gravitation. Courtesy of Nikola Tesla Papers. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University. April 15, 1932.)

3. 鈥淚 hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved, is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.鈥 鈥揘T聽(鈥淧ioneer Radio Engineer Gives Views On Power.鈥澛New York Herald Tribune, September 11, 1932.)

4. 鈥淸The Theory of Relativity] is a mass of errors and deceptive ideas violently opposed to the teachings of great men of science of the past and even to common sense. The theory wraps all these errors and fallacies and clothes them in magnificent mathematical garb which fascinates, dazzles and makes people blind to the underlying errors. The theory is like a beggar clothed in purple whom ignorant people take for a king. Its exponents are very brilliant men, but they are metaphysicists rather than scientists. Not a single one of the relativity propositions has been proved.鈥澛犫揘T(鈥淭esla, 79, Promises to Transmit Force.鈥澛New York Times, July 11, 1935.)

5. 鈥淭he kinetic and potential energy of a body is the result of motion and determined by the product of its mass and the square of velocity. Let the mass be reduced, the energy is diminished in the same proportion. If it be reduced to zero the energy is likewise zero for any finite velocity. In other words, it is absolutely impossible to convert mass into energy. It would be different if there were forces in nature capable of imparting to a mass infinite velocity. Then the product of zero mass with the square of infinite velocity would represent infinite energy. But we know that there are no such forces and the idea that mass is convertible into energy is rank nonsense鈥

鈥淎ccording to the relativists, space has a tendency to curvature owing to an inherent property or presence of celestial bodies. Granting a semblance of reality to this fantastic idea, it is still self-contradictory. Every action is accompanied by an equivalent reaction and the effects of the latter are directly opposite to those of the former. Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curvature of the same, it appears to my simple mind that the curved spaces must react on the bodies and, producing the opposite effects, straighten out the curves. Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible. But even if it existed it would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a field of force can account for them and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion. So are also all attempts to explain the workings of the universe without recognizing the existence of the ether and the indispensable function it plays in the phenomena.鈥 鈥揘T聽(鈥淒ynamic Theory Of Gravity.鈥 July 10, 1937. Prior to interviews with the press on his 81st birthday observance.)

6. 鈥淭he relativity theory, by the way, is much older than its present proponents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman聽Boskovic, the great philosopher, who, not withstanding other and multifold obligations, wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects. Boskovic dealt with relativity, including the so-called time-space continuum.鈥澛NT

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drnikolatesla: Nikola Tesla Describing Quantum…

drnikolatesla:

Nikola Tesla Describing Quantum Entanglement In 1891.

鈥淣ature has stored up in the universe infinite energy. The eternal recipient and transmitter of this infinite energy is the ether. The recognition of the existence of ether, and of the functions it performs, is one of the most important results of modern scientific research. The mere abandoning of the idea of action at a distance, the assumption of a medium pervading all space and connecting all gross matter, has freed the minds of thinkers of an ever present doubt, and, by opening a new horizon鈥攏ew and unforeseen possibilities鈥攈as given fresh interest to phenomena with which we are familiar of old. It has been a great step towards the understanding of the forces of nature and their multifold manifestations to our senses. It has been for the enlightened student of physics what the understanding of the mechanism of the firearm or of the steam engine is for the barbarian.鈥

鈥揘ikola Tesla

鈥淓xperiments With Alternate Currents Of Very High Frequency And Their Application To Methods Of Artificial Illumination.鈥 Lecture delivered before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Columbia College, N.Y., May 20, 1891.

馃悙

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Why Nikola Tesla Was One Of Albert Einstein鈥檚 Biggest Critics

We know that Einstein鈥檚 Theory鈥 of Special Relativity says that the kinetic energy (e) of a body equals its mass (m) times the speed of light (c虏), or (e=mc虏). The equation expresses a theory that mass and energy are the same physical entity and can be changed into each other. It also asserts that speeds greater than 186,300 miles per second (speed of light) are impossible in the universe. It is literally one of the principal tenets of the theory; that the mass of a body increases with its speed, and would become infinite at the velocity of light. Hence, a greater velocity is impossible.

Nikola Tesla positively denied that Einstein鈥檚 theory was true, not just because he rejected the idea of matter being convertible into energy, and energy into matter, or even the existence of space-time, but because he himself had measured speeds traveling faster than light in numerous observations, experiments and measurements, qualitative and quantitative.

As far back as 1896, Tesla conducted experiments on cosmic rays where he measured cosmic ray velocities from the star, Antares, which he measured to be fifty times greater than the speed of light, thus demolishing one of the basic pillars of the structure of relativity. Also, in 1899, he conducted experiments at Colorado Springs where he sent currents from his transmitter around earth and back to his receiver traveling at a mean velocity of 292,815 miles per second. On April of 1900 he published a patent on this transmitter titled the Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Medium, which was just a play thing compared to his Magnifying Transmitter patented in 1914.

Whether you believe Tesla witnessed and measured such speeds or not, his statements should still be given due consideration. After all, both Einstein and Tesla were remarkable scientists, but Einstein relied on abstract mathematics to prove his theories while Tesla followed the scientific method like a religion and was solely dependent on actual experimentation too prove his. Tesla鈥檚 work and theories have yet to be proven wrong either.

Anyways鈥 Here are 6 quotes from Tesla critiquing Einstein鈥檚 Theory of Relativity. Enjoy (((:

鈥淲hat is 鈥榯hought鈥 in relativity, for example, is not science, but some kind of metaphysics based on abstract mathematical principles and conceptions which will be forever incomprehensible to beings like ourselves whose whole knowledge is derived from a three-dimensional world.鈥澛 鈥揘T 聽(鈥淕reat Scientific Discovery Impends.鈥 Sunday Star. Washington D.C., May 17, 1931.)

We read a great deal about matter being changed into force and force being changed into matter by the cosmic rays. This is absurd. It is the same as saying that the body can be changed into the mind, and the mind into the body. We know that the mind is a functioning of the body, and in the same manner force is a function of matter. Without the body there can be no mind, without matter there can be no force. Einstein has for years developed formulas explaining the mechanism of the cosmos. In doing this he overlooked an important factor, namely the fact that some of the heavenly bodies are increasing in distance from the sun. This is the same as writing a business letter and forgetting the subject you wish to write about. In order to explain this phenomenon Einstein has invented the quantity 鈥渓ambda.鈥澛燤y theory of gravitation explains this phenomenon perfectly.鈥澛犫揘T聽聽(Tesla鈥檚 statement relating to force and matter, to Einstein鈥檚 theories, and Tesla鈥檚 own theory of gravitation. Courtesy of Nikola Tesla Papers. Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University. April 15, 1932.)

鈥淚 hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved, is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.鈥 鈥揘T (鈥淧ioneer Radio Engineer Gives Views On Power.鈥 New York Herald Tribune, September 11, 1932.)

鈥淸The Theory of Relativity] is a mass of errors and deceptive ideas violently opposed to the teachings of great men of science of the past and even to common sense. The theory wraps all these errors and fallacies and clothes them in magnificent mathematical garb which fascinates, dazzles and makes people blind to the underlying errors. The theory is like a beggar clothed in purple whom ignorant people take for a king. Its exponents are very brilliant men, but they are metaphysicists rather than scientists. Not a single one of the relativity propositions has been proved.鈥澛犫揘T (鈥淭esla, 79, Promises to Transmit Force.鈥 New York Times, July 11, 1935.)

鈥淭he kinetic and potential energy of a body is the result of motion and determined by the product of its mass and the square of velocity. Let the mass be reduced, the energy is diminished in the same proportion. If it be reduced to zero the energy is likewise zero for any finite velocity. In other words, it is absolutely impossible to convert mass into energy. It would be different if there were forces in nature capable of imparting to a mass infinite velocity. Then the product of zero mass with the square of infinite velocity would represent infinite energy. But we know that there are no such forces and the idea that mass is convertible into energy is rank nonsense鈥

鈥淎ccording to the relativists, space has a tendency to curvature owing to an inherent property or presence of celestial bodies. Granting a semblance of reality to this fantastic idea, it is still self-contradictory. Every action is accompanied by an equivalent reaction and the effects of the latter are directly opposite to those of the former. Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curvature of the same, it appears to my simple mind that the curved spaces must react on the bodies and, producing the opposite effects, straighten out the curves. Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible. But even if it existed it would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a field of force can account for them and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion. So are also all attempts to explain the workings of the universe without recognizing the existence of the ether and the indispensable function it plays in the phenomena.鈥 鈥揘T (鈥淒ynamic Theory Of Gravity.鈥 July 10, 1937. Prior to interviews with the press on his 81st birthday observance.)

鈥淭he relativity theory, by the way, is much older than its present proponents. It was advanced over 200 years ago by my illustrious countryman聽Boskovic, the great philosopher, who, not withstanding other and multifold obligations, wrote a thousand volumes of excellent literature on a vast variety of subjects. Boskovic dealt with relativity, including the so-called time-space continuum.鈥 NT